Royal College of Specialists of Canada approved training is available in all sub-specialties of laboratory medicine. These include anatomical pathology, general pathology, hematopathology, medical microbiology, medical biochemistry, neuropathology and transfusion medicine. The individual programs are designed to fulfill the training requirements of the respective Royal College programs. Residents rotate through the major university teaching hospitals and are expected to accept increasing responsibilities as they progress. Weekly educational seminars within and between departments include active resident participation. Reviews of interesting cases are also a standard experience. Opportunities are available to gain skills and understanding on biotechnological and molecular applications of diagnoses, bioethics as pertinent to laboratory medicine, and laboratory information management and administration. Residents' progress through the training program is assessed regularly.