The Department of Physics and Astronomy (www.physics.ubc.ca) offers opportunities for study leading to bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees. For information on advanced degrees, see graduate Physics.
Students may select their electives so as to obtain a concentration in an area of their interest. See the Physics and Astronomy Specialization Guide (www.phas.ubc.ca/undergraddegreeprograms) for an outline of appropriate courses and other information. Students wishing to enter second year in a Physics or Astronomy Major, Honours, Combined Majors, or Combined Honours specialization must apply using the online process (www.science.ubc.ca/students/degree/apply) administered by the Faculty of Science. Students will receive an email communication regarding the process in late May or early June. Details on how to apply to the different specializations can be found on the department website (www.phas.ubc.ca/undergradhowapply). Continuing third and fourthyear physics or astronomy students making satisfactory progress do not require program approval. Students wishing to transfer into physics or astronomy in third year must contact the Department to obtain specialization approval.
Students in the General Science program are invited to consult a departmental advisor concerning appropriate courses.
A dual degree program in Physics and Education, that offers qualified students the opportunity to earn a B.Sc. degree in Physics (Major) and a B.Ed. degree in Secondary Education, in five winter sessions with some academic requirements in term 1 of the summer sessions. After completing all the requirements, students are normally eligible for a British Columbia Professional Teaching Certificate. Admission to the dual degree program requires application in the fall of second year and successful completion of a teaching practicum at the end of second year. See the Dual Degree Program in Science and Education for more information on admission and continuation requirements.
Physics 11 (BC secondary school) or equivalent is a prerequisite for all students entering the Faculty of Science. Students lacking Physics 11, but wishing to enter, should submit a special appeal to Enrolment Services with their application to take PHYS 100.
Science students with Physics 11, but not Physics 12 are required to take 3 credits of physics. Normally this requirement is met by taking PHYS 100. PHYS 101, 107, and 117 require Physics 12 or PHYS 100. Credit will be given for only one of PHYS 107 or 117.
PHYS 107 is open to students who have obtained an A in Physics 12 and Mathematics 12, and who are particularly interested in physical science and/or its application to other fields or disciplines.
Students planning to go into Astronomy, Physics or Applied Science (and some other specializations) are required to take PHYS 102, or PHYS 108 plus PHYS 109, or PHYS 118 plus PHYS 119, in addition to PHYS 101 or 107 or 117. Credit will only be given for one of PHYS 102, 108 or 118. Science One satisfies the entrance requirement for all Physics and Astronomy specializations.
Nonscience students without Physics 11 may take PHYS 100 in a later year.
PHYS 330 (3) is primarily for students in the Faculty of Science who are not specializing in physics.
PHYS 340 (3), 341 (3), and 343 (3) are for students not in the Faculty of Science. PHYS 318 (3) is recommended for general science, prearchitecture, and education students.
Cooperative education is a process of education that integrates academic study with related and supervised work experience in cooperating employer organizations.
A Cooperative Education program is available for students in Physics and Astronomy. The program is intended to help prepare interested and qualified students for research careers in industry with at least four work placements (each placement is normally 16 weeks long) supervised by practicing professionals. Faculty advisors or Coop coordinators also visit students at their place of work and provide advice on technical reports required of all students in the program.
To be eligible, students must be admissible into the secondyear Physics or Astronomy Bachelor of Science program with an average above 68%. Admission is by application to the Coop Office. Selection of students will be based on academic performance and general suitability to the work environment as determined by their resume and interview. Enrolment is subject to the availability of appropriate work placements and faculty advisors. The work placements are arranged by mutual agreement between the students and the employing organizations. Participating students will register for PHYS 298, 299, 399, 498, or 499 as appropriate, and pay the cooperative education program fee per course and Coop workshop fees (see Cooperative Education Program Fees).
Graduation in the program requires a student to complete at least four of PHYS 298, 299, 399, 498 and 499, in addition to the normal academic requirements. Not all of the work terms may be in summer. Students will have each satisfactorily completed course noted on their academic record.
Detailed information on the program may be obtained from the Department of Physics or the Cooperative Education Program (www.sciencecoop.ubc.ca).
First Year  

Communication Requirement^{1}  6 
CHEM 121 (or 111)^{2}  4 
MATH 100 (or 102 or 104 or 110 or 120 or 180 or 184)^{3}  3 
MATH 101 (or 103 or 105 or 121)^{3}  3 
PHYS 117 (or 107)^{4}  3 
PHYS 118 (or 102 or 108)^{4}  3 
PHYS 119 (or 109)  1 
Electives^{5,6}  7 
Total Credits  30 
Second Year^{7}  
MATH 200^{8}  3 
MATH 215, 221  6 
PHYS 200^{9}, 216^{9}  7 
PHYS 219, 229  3 
PHYS 210  3 
Electives^{5,6}  8 
Total Credits  30 
Third Year^{10}  
MATH 317^{8}  3 
PHYS 203^{11}  4 
PHYS 309 or 319  3 
PHYS 312, 304  6 
PHYS/ASTR 300level and above^{12}  3 
Electives^{5,6}  11 
Total Credits  30 
Fourth Year^{10}  
PHYS 301  3 
3 credits from PHYS 348, 409, and 420^{13}  3 
PHYS/ASTR 300level and above^{13}  9 
Electives^{5,6}  15 
Total Credits  30 
Total Credits for Degree  120 
^{1} A total of 6 credits of coursework is required to meet the Communications Requirement. For a full list of acceptable courses see Communication Requirement.  
^{2} Students who do not have B.C. High School Chemistry 12 (or its equivalent) must write the UBC Chemistry Basic Skills Test and may be required to take CHEM 100. Students interested in senior chemistry courses or who are planning to enter a career in teaching should take a second introductory chemistry course as an elective.  
^{3} MATH 110 is 6 credits, MATH 120, 121, 180, and 184 are 4 credits; students should adjust elective credit accordingly.  
^{4} Students who do not have B.C. High School Physics 12 (or its equivalent) must take PHYS 100 prior to other PHYS courses. Qualified students are encouraged to take PHYS 107/108/109. PHYS 102 is 3 credits and can replace both PHYS 108 or 118 and PHYS 109 or 119 requirements; students should adjust elective credit accordingly. Students that took PHYS 101 may enter the specialization but will need to take PHYS 107, 117, or 170 before the required PHYS 216.  
^{5} The number of elective credits in each year is chosen to make the yearly total be 30. Some course alternatives have different credit values. Students are permitted to move elective credits between years.  
^{6} Elective credits together with required courses must fulfill the Faculty of Science’s: a) Foundational Requirement; b) Laboratory Science Requirement; c) Science Breadth Requirement; d) Science and Arts Requirements; e) Upperlevel Requirement; f) General Degree Requirements. 

^{7} For admission to the specialization, students must be in good standing and should be competent in MATH and PHYS. It is advisable that a student entering any specialization in physics or astronomy have a minimum average of 60% in firstyear PHYS and 60% in firstyear MATH. See also Second Year Application (science.ubc.ca/students/degree/apply), Promotion to Second Year, and Admission as a PostSecondary Transfer.  
^{8} Qualified students may take MATH 217 and 2 credits of electives instead of MATH 200 and MATH 317.  
^{9} Students may opt to take PHYS 200 or PHYS 216 in thirdyear, in exchange for an additional 3 credits of electives in secondyear.  
^{10} Consultation with a Physics Department advisor is recommended before entering third and fourthyear. See also Promotion Requirements and Courses Required for Promotion.  
^{11} CHEM 304 may replace PHYS 203.  
^{12} To be chosen from ASTR or PHYS courses 300level and above. See the department website (www.phas.ubc.ca/undergradphysicsmajor) for the list of suggested courses. Some courses intended for Honours students require approval from appropriate instructor(s). Students interested in teaching are encouraged to consider PHYS 420.  
^{13} Note it is possible to take more than 3 credits from PHYS 348, 409, 420 since these are not credit excluded. Excess credits can be used towards the 12 credits of PHYS/ASTR 300 level and above courses in third and fourth year. 
See Computer Science section.
See Oceanography Combined Major Oceanography and Physics section.
First Year (Winter)  

Communication Requirement^{1}  6 
CHEM 121 (or 111)^{2}  4 
CHEM 123 (or 113)  4 
MATH 100 (or 102 or 104 or 110 or 120 or 180 or 184)^{3}  3 
MATH 101 (or 103 or 105 or 121)^{3}  3 
PHYS 117 (or 107)^{4}  3 
PHYS 118 (or 102 or 108)^{4}  3 
PHYS 119 (or 109)  1 
Elective^{5,6}  3 
Total Credits  30 
Second Year (Winter)^{7}  
MATH 200^{8}, 215, 221  9 
PHYS 200, 216^{9}  7 
PHYS 210, 219, 229  6 
Electives^{5,6}  8 
Total Credits  30 
Second Year (Summer)  
EDUC 319^{10}  1 
Total Credits  1 
Third Year (Winter)^{11}  
EDST 403  1 
EDST 401  2 
LLED 360  3 
MATH 317^{8}  3 
PHYS 203^{12}, 312^{8}  7 
PHYS 309 or 319  3 
PHYS 304  3 
Electives^{5,6,13}  8 
Total Credits  30 
Third Year (Summer)  
EDUC 399^{10}  1 
Total Credits  1 
Fourth Year (Winter)^{11}  
EPSE 308  3 
6 credits from PHYS 348, 409, and 420  6 
PHYS 301  3 
PHYS or ASTR 300level or higher^{14}  9 
Elective^{5,6,13}  9 
Total Credits  30 
Fourth Year (Summer)  
LLED 361  3 
EPSE 317  3 
EDST 403  1 
EDST 404  1 
EDUC 440  3 
Total Credits  11 
Fifth Year (Winter)  
EDUC 315  2 
EDUC 421  12 
EDUC 450  3 
EDUC 451  3 
EPSE 310  3 
EPSE 311  1 
EDCP 352  3 
EDCP 357  3 
Total Credits  30 
Fifth Year (Summer)  
EDUC 452  3 
Total Credits  3 
Total Credits for Dual Degree  166 
^{1} A total of 6 credits of coursework is required to meet the Communications Requirement. For a full list of acceptable courses see Communication Requirement. The Faculty of Education does not accept SCIE 113 or APSC 176 to meet their English requirement, but they do accept ASTU 100, ASTU 150, WRDS 150 to be equivalent to ENGL 112. However students are required to take a minimum of 3 credits of literature coursework from ENGL 100, 110, 111, 120, 121. Some of the acceptable courses are not available for students enrolled in the Faculty of Science but might have already been taken by students that transferred to the Faculty of Science.  
^{2} Students who do not have B.C. High School Chemistry 12 (or its equivalent) must write the UBC Chemistry Basic Skills Test and may be required to take CHEM 100.  
^{3} MATH 110 is 6 credits, MATH 120, 121, 180, and 184 are 4 credits; students should adjust elective credit accordingly.  
^{4} Students who do not have B.C. High School Physics 12 (or its equivalent) must take PHYS 100 prior to other PHYS courses. Qualified students are encouraged to take PHYS 107/108/109. PHYS 102 is 3 credits and can replace both PHYS 108 or 118 and PHYS 109 or 119 requirements; students should adjust electives accordingly. Students that took PHYS 101 may enter the specialization but will need to take PHYS 107, 117, or 170 before the required PHYS 216.  
^{5} Some course alternatives have different credit values. The number of electives in each year is chosen to balance the total number of credits. Students are permitted to move elective credits between years.  
^{6} Elective credits together with required courses must fulfill the Faculty of Science’s: a) Foundational Requirement; b) Laboratory Science Requirement; c) Science Breadth Requirement; d) Science and Arts Requirements; e) Upperlevel Requirement; f) General Degree Requirements. See also Dual Degree in Science and Education. 

^{7} For admission to the specialization, students must be in good standing and should be competent in MATH and PHYS. It is advisable that a student entering any specialization in physics or astronomy have a minimum average of 60% in firstyear PHYS and 60% in firstyear MATH. See also Second Year Application (science.ubc.ca/students/degree/apply), Promotion to Second Year, Admission to Dual Degree in Science and Education, and Admission as a PostSecondary Transfer.  
^{8} Qualified students may take MATH 217 and 2 credits of electives instead of MATH 200 and MATH 317. In this case 3 additional upperlevel science credits will be required to satisfy Faculty of Science requirements. Students considering graduate studies in Physics are advised to replace MATH 200, 317, and PHYS 312 with MATH 217, 300, and 316.  
^{9} Students may opt to take PHYS 200 or PHYS 216 in third year, in exchange for an additional 3 credits of electives in second year.  
^{10} EDUC 319 and EDUC 399 are oneweek and twoweek teaching practica, respectively, during the month of May in Year 2 and Year 3. Successful completion of EDUC 319 and EDUC 399 are normally required to continue in the B.Ed. program.  
^{11} Consultation with a Physics departmental advisor is recommended before entering third and fourth year. See also Promotion Requirements and Courses Required for Promotion.  
^{12} CHEM 304 may replace PHYS 203.  
^{13} MATH 302, 307, 308, 309, 312, 313 and 342 are recommended mathematics electives for students who are interested in teaching mathematics.  
^{14} PHYS 306 and PHYS 401 or 408 are recommended for students considering graduate study in physics. Some courses intended for Honours students require approval from appropriate instructor(s). 
First Year  

Communication Requirement^{1}  6 
CHEM 121 (or 111)^{2}  4 
MATH 120 (or 100 or 102 or 104 or 180 or 184)^{3}  4 
MATH 121 (or 101 or 103 or 105)^{3}  4 
PHYS 107 (or 117)^{4}  3 
PHYS 108 (or 102 or 118)^{4}  3 
PHYS 109 (or 119)^{4}  1 
Electives^{5,6}  8 
Total Credits  33 
Second Year^{7}  
MATH 217^{8}  4 
MATH 223 (or 221)^{9}  3 
MATH 215  3 
PHYS 200, 203, 210, 216  14 
PHYS 219, 229  3 
Electives^{5,6}  6 
Total Credits  33 
Third Year^{10}  
MATH 300, 316, 318  9 
PHYS 301, 306^{11}  6 
PHYS 304, 402  6 
PHYS 309 or 319  3 
PHYS 401^{11} or 408^{12}  3 
Electives^{5,6,13}  6 
Total Credits  33 
Fourth Year^{10}  
MATH 400^{14}  3 
PHYS 449  6 
PHYS 305 or 403 or 474  3 
PHYS 409  3 
Electives^{5,6,13}  18 
Total Credits  33 
Total Credits for Degree  132 
^{1} A total of 6 credits of coursework is required to meet the Communications Requirement. For a full list of acceptable courses see Communication Requirement.  
^{2} Students who do not have B.C. High School Chemistry 12 (or its equivalent) must write the UBC Chemistry Basic Skills Test and may be required to take CHEM 100. Students interested in senior chemistry courses or who are planning to enter a career in teaching should take a second introductory chemistry course as an elective.  
^{3} MATH 120, 121, 180, and 184 are 4 credits, the alternatives are 3 credits; students should adjust electives accordingly.  
^{4} Students who do not have B.C. High School Physics 12 (or its equivalent) must take PHYS 100 prior to other PHYS courses. PHYS 102 is 3 credits and can replace both PHYS 108 or 118 and PHYS 109 or 119 requirements; students should adjust elective credits accordingly. Students that took PHYS 101 may enter the specialization but will need to take PHYS 107, 117, or 170 before the required PHYS 216.  
^{5} The number of elective credits in each year is chosen to make the yearly total be 33. Some course alternatives have different credit values. Students are permitted to move elective credits between years.  
^{6} Elective credits together with required courses must fulfill the Faculty of Science’s: a) Foundational Requirement; b) Laboratory Science Requirement; c) Science Breadth Requirement; d) Science and Arts Requirements; e) Upperlevel Requirement; f) General Degree Requirements. Honours specializations have additional requirements, see Introduction to Degree Options. 

^{7} For admission to the specialization, students must be in good standing with no courses failed and a grade of at least 68% in each firstyear physics and mathematics course. See also Introduction to Degree Options, Second Year Application (www.science.ubc.ca/students/degree/apply), Promotion to Second Year, and Admission as a PostSecondary Transfer.  
^{8} Students who are interested in mathematical physics are advised to substitute MATH 226, 227 for MATH 217. MATH 200, 317 can also be substituted for MATH 217. Either substitution would require using 3 credits of science elective. They are also encouraged to take MATH 320, 321 later in their program.  
^{9} Students with credit for MATH 152 prior to entering this specialization can substitute it for MATH 223. MATH 223 or MATH 221 can be taken in first year. Eligible students are recommended to take MATH 223.  
^{10} Consultation with a Physics Department advisor is recommended before entering third and fourthyear. See also Introduction to Degree Options, Promotion Requirements and Courses Required for Promotion.  
^{11} Students who choose to take PHYS 401 may take PHYS 306 and PHYS 401 in two different years if course timetable conflicts do not allow them to be done in the same year.  
^{12} PHYS 401 is 3 credits, PHYS 408 is 4 credits; students should adjust electives accordingly.  
^{13} The specialization requires at least 9 credits of upperlevel PHYS or ASTR courses including at least 6 credits at the 400level or higher. Suggested upperlevel electives are ASTR 403, 404, 406; EECE 480; MATH 301, 345, 401, 402, 405, 418, 420, 450; PHYS 400, 405, 407, 410, 437, 447, 473, 474. Qualified students are encouraged to take 500level physics courses for which they must have permission of the Faculty of Science and the Faculty of Graduate Studies.  
^{14} With permission of an undergraduate physics and astronomy advisor, another course may replace MATH 400. 
First Year  

Communication Requirement^{1}  6 
PHYS 107 (or 117)^{2}  3 
PHYS 108 (or 102 or 118)  3 
PHYS 109 (or 119)  1 
BIOL 112, 140^{3}  5 
CHEM 121 (or 111)^{4}  4 
CHEM 123 (or 113)  4 
MATH 100 (or 120 or 102 or 104 or 180 or 184)^{5}  3 
MATH 101 (or 121 or 103 or 105)^{5}  3 
Elective^{5,6}  1 
Total Credits  33 
Second Year^{7}  
BIOL 200, 201  6 
CHEM 233, 235  4 
MATH 217^{8}  4 
MATH 223 (or 221)  3 
MATH 215  3 
PHYS 210, 219, 229  6 
PHYS 203  4 
Elective^{5,6}  3 
Total Credits  33 
Third Year^{9}  
BIOC 302^{10}  3 
MATH 300, 316  6 
MATH 318  3 
PHYS 200  4 
PHYS 301, 305, 216  9 
PHYS 309 or 319  3 
BioScience elective^{10}  3 
Electives^{5,6}  3 
Total Credits  34 
Fourth Year^{9}  
PHYS 449^{11}  6 
PHYS 304  3 
BioScience electives^{10}  15 
Electives^{5}  8 
Total Credits  32 
Total Credits for Degree  132 
^{1} A total of 6 credits of coursework is required to meet the Communications Requirement. For a full list of acceptable courses see Communication Requirement.  
^{2} Students who do not have B.C. High School Physics 12 (or its equivalent) must take PHYS 100 prior to other PHYS courses. PHYS 102 is 3 credits and can replace both PHYS 108 or 118 and PHYS 109 or 119 requirements; students should adjust electives accordingly. Students who took PHYS 101 may enter the specialization but will need to take PHYS 107, 117, or 170 before the required PHYS 216.  
^{3} Students who do not have BC High School Biology 11 or Biology 12 or equivalent must take BIOL 111 before taking BIOL 112 or BIOL 140. Students who do not have BC High School Chemistry 12 or equivalent must take CHEM 100 or CHEM 111 before taking BIOL 112.  
^{4} Students who do not have B.C. High School Chemistry 12 (or its equivalent) must write the UBC Chemistry Basic Skills Test and may be required to take CHEM 100.  
^{5} Some course alternates have different credit value. The number of electives in each year is chosen to balance the total number of credits (i.e., make the yearly total close to 33). However, since the number of available elective credits may not be a multiple of three, students are permitted to move elective credits between years.  
^{6} Elective credits together with required courses must fulfill the Faculty of Science’s: a) Foundational Requirement; b) Laboratory Science Requirement; c) Science Breadth Requirement; Note that Biophysics is considered a Combined Honours specialization. d) Science and Arts Requirements; e) Upperlevel Requirement; f) General Degree Requirements. Honours specializations have additional requirements, see Introduction to Degree Options. 

^{7} For admission to the specialization, students must be in good standing with an overall standing of at least 68% in each firstyear physics and mathematics course. See also Introduction to Degree Options, Second Year Application (science.ubc.ca/students/degree/apply), Promotion to Second Year, and Admission as a PostSecondary Transfer.  
^{8} MATH 200 plus MATH 317 can replace MATH 217 by using 2 elective credits.  
^{9} Consultation with a Physics Department advisor is recommended before entering third and fourthyear. See also Introduction to Degree Options, Promotion Requirements and Courses Required for Promotion.  
^{10} See BioScience Electives below. Note that 3 credits of bioscience electives may be used to replace BIOC 302 (3) with BIOC 303 (6). Students considering the coop option are highly recommended to take BIOC 301 as one of the BioScience Electives in their third year.  
^{11} It is possible for students to replace PHYS 449 with BIOC 449, BIOL 449, or MICB 449 with approval from both the Biophysics Advisor and the other department. 
The 18 credits of biosciences in the third and fourth years must include at least one laboratory course from the following recommended list or approved by the Biophysics advisor: BIOC 301, BIOL 337, BIOL 340, BIOL 341, BIOL 351, BIOL 352, BIOL 363, BIOL 437, MICB 322, MICB 323. The electives should concentrate mainly on one of the following broad categories:
The student's list of electives must be approved by the Biophysics advisor, who will direct the student to the appropriate Life Science advisors. The specialization should give the student good working knowledge of one subfield in the biological sciences. Most of such electives have prerequisites; early consultation with an advisor is, therefore, recommended.
The following is a list of suggested bioscience electives:
First Year  

Communication Requirement^{1}  6 
CHEM 121 (or 111)^{2}  4 
MATH 120 (or 100 or 102 or 104 or 180 or 184)^{3}  4 
MATH 121 (or 101 or 103 or 105)^{3}  4 
PHYS 107 (or 117)^{4}  3 
PHYS 108 (or 102 or 118)^{4}  3 
PHYS 109 (or 119)  1 
Electives^{5,6}  8 
Total Credits  33 
Second Year^{7}  
ASTR 200, 205  6 
MATH 217^{8}  4 
MATH 223 (or 221)^{9}  3 
MATH 215  3 
PHYS 200, 203, 216  11 
PHYS 210, 219, 229  6 
Total Credits  33 
Third Year^{10}  
ASTR 300, 407  6 
MATH 300, 316  6 
MATH 318  3 
PHYS 304, 306  6 
PHYS 301, 408  7 
Electives^{5,6}  5 
Total Credits  33 
Fourth Year  
ASTR 404, 406  6 
ASTR 405 or PHYS 409^{11}  3 
ASTR 449 or PHYS 449  6 
PHYS 402, 403  6 
Electives^{5,6,12}  12 
Total Credits  33 
Total Credits for Degree  132 
^{1} A total of 6 credits of coursework is required to meet the Communications Requirement. For a full list of acceptable courses see Communication Requirement.  
^{2} Students who do not have B.C. High School Chemistry 12 (or its equivalent) must write the UBC Chemistry Basic Skills Test and may be required to take CHEM 100. Students interested in senior chemistry courses or who are planning to enter a career in teaching should take a second introductory chemistry course as an elective.  
^{3} MATH 120, 121, 180, and 184 are 4 credits, the alternatives are 3 credits; students should adjust electives accordingly.  
^{4} Students who do not have B.C. High School Physics 12 (or its equivalent) must take PHYS 100 prior to other PHYS courses. PHYS 102 is 3 credits and can replace both PHYS 108 or 118 and PHYS 109 or 119 requirements; students should adjust elective credit accordingly. Students that took PHYS 101 may enter the specialization but will need to take PHYS 107, 117, or 170 before the required PHYS 216.  
^{5} The number of elective credits in each year is chosen to make the yearly total be 33. Some course alternatives have different credit values. Students are permitted to move elective credits between years.  
^{6} Elective credits together with required courses must fulfill the Faculty of Science’s: a) Foundational Requirement; b) Laboratory Science Requirement; c) Science Breadth Requirement; d) Science and Arts Requirements; e) Upperlevel Requirement; f) General Degree Requirements. Honours specializations have additional requirements, see Introduction to Degree Options. 

^{7} For admission to the specialization, students must be in good standing with no courses failed and a grade of at least 68% in each firstyear physics and mathematics course. See also Introduction to Degree Options, Second Year Application (science.ubc.ca/students/degree/apply), Promotion to Second Year, and Admission as a PostSecondary Transfer.  
^{8} Students who are interested in mathematical physics are advised to substitute MATH 226, 227 for MATH 217. MATH 200, 317 can also be substituted for MATH 217. Either substitution would require using 3 credits of science elective. They are also encouraged to take MATH 320, 321 later in their program.  
^{9} Students with credit for MATH 152 prior to entering this specialization can substitute it for MATH 223. MATH 223 or MATH 221 can be taken in first year. Eligible students are recommended to take MATH 223.  
^{10} Consultation with a Physics Department advisor is recommended before entering third and fourthyear. See also Introduction to Degree Options, Promotion Requirements and Courses Required for Promotion.  
^{11} Any Honours Physics and Astronomy student who does not have the course prerequisite should consult an undergraduate physics and astronomy advisor for permission to take PHYS 409.  
^{12} ASTR 403 and PHYS 407 are recommended. MATH 400 is recommended. Suggested upperlevel electives are MATH 301, 345, 401, 402, 405, 418, 420, 450; PHYS 400, 405, 407, 410, 437, 447, 473, 474. 
First Year  

Communication Requirement^{1}  3 
CHEM 121 (or 111)^{2}  4 
CHEM 123 (or 113)  4 
MATH 120^{3}  4 
MATH 121^{4}  4 
PHYS 107, 108, 109^{5}  7 
Electives^{6,7}  6 
Total Credits  32 
Second Year  
CHEM 203^{8}  4 
CHEM 208  3 
CHEM 213, 245  4 
MATH 215, 217^{9}, 223 (or 221)^{10}  10 
PHYS 200  4 
PHYS 216  3 
PHYS 219, 229  3 
Electives^{6,7}  3 
Total Credits  34 
Third Year  
CHEM 211  4 
CHEM 300^{1}  3 
CHEM 304  3 
CHEM 315  1 
CHEM 319, 329  2 
MATH 316  3 
PHYS 210  3 
PHYS 301, 304  6 
PHYS 309 or 319  3 
PHYS and CHEM Electives^{11}  3 
Electives^{6,7}  3 
Total Credits  34 
Fourth Year  
One of BIOC 202, CHEM 305, 327  3 
CHEM 412  3 
CHEM 449 or PHYS 449  6 
PHYS 401 or 408^{12}  3 
One of PHYS 306, 402, 403, 474  3 
PHYS and CHEM Electives^{11}  9 
Electives^{6,7}  5 
Total Credits  32 
Total Credits for Degree  132 
^{1} Of the 6 credits required to satisfy the Communication Requirement, 3 credits are specified in third year (CHEM 300). The remaining 3 credits must be chosen from the list of acceptable courses, see Communication Requirement.  
^{2} Students who do not have B.C. High School Chemistry 12 (or its equivalent) must write the UBC Chemistry Basic Skills Test and may be required to take CHEM 100.  
^{3} MATH 180 or 184 may substitute for MATH 120. MATH 100 or 102 or 104 may substitute for MATH 120 by increasing the electives by 1 credit. MATH 110 may substitute for MATH 120 by decreasing the electives by 2 credits.  
^{4} MATH 101 or 103 or 105 may substitute for MATH 121 by increasing the electives by 1 credit.  
^{5} PHYS 117, 118, and 119 may substitute for PHYS 107, 108, and 109. Students who do not have B.C. High School Physics 12 (or its equivalent) must take PHYS 100 before taking other 100level PHYS courses.  
^{6} The number of electives in each year is chosen to balance the total number of credits (i.e., make the yearly total close to 33). Elective credits may be redistributed among the years in this specialization, provided the total number remains the same. The year level of an elective does not need to correspond to the year level of the specialization.  
^{7} Elective credits together with required courses must fulfill the Faculty of Science’s: a) Foundational Requirement; b) Laboratory Science Requirement; c) Science Breadth Requirement; d) Science and Arts Requirements; e) Upperlevel Requirement; f) General Degree Requirements. Honours specializations have additional requirements, see Introduction to Degree Options. 

^{8} Students with CHEM 235 and a score of 76% or higher in CHEM 233 may apply for admission to this specialization and will be allowed to use CHEM 233 and 235 in place of CHEM 203.  
^{9} MATH 217 can be replaced by MATH 200 and 317 by using 2 elective credits.  
^{10} MATH 223 (or 221) may be taken in first year.  
^{11} Chosen from 300 and 400level PHYS and CHEM lecture courses. At least 3 credits must be chosen from 400level PHYS lecture courses and at least 3 credits must be chosen from 400level CHEM lecture courses. PHYS 402, 410 are strongly recommended for students intending to pursue graduate work in physics. Recommended CHEM courses include CHEM 401, 402, 407, 408, 410, 417.  
^{12} Students selecting PHYS 408 decrease the number of PHYS Electives by 1 credit. 
See Computer Science section.
First Year  

Communication Requirement^{2}  6 
CHEM 121 (or 111)^{3}  4 
MATH 100 or 102 or 104 or 120 or 180 or 184^{4}  3 
MATH 101 or 103 or 105 or 121^{4}  3 
PHYS 107 (or 117)^{5}  3 
PHYS 108 (or 102 or 118)^{5}  3 
PHYS 109 (or 119)  1 
Other subject credits and electives^{6,7,8}  10 
Total Credits  33 
Second Year^{9}  
MATH 215, 217^{10}  7 
MATH 221 or 223  3 
PHYS 200, 203, 216  11 
PHYS 219, 229  3 
Other subject credits and electives^{6,7,8}  9 
Total Credits  33 
Third and Fourth Years^{11}  
MATH 300, 316  6 
Required upperlevel credits in the other science subject^{6}  21 
PHYS 301, 304, 306  9 
PHYS 309 or 319  3 
PHYS 401 or 408^{12}  3 
PHYS 449^{13}  6 
Electives^{6,7,8,14}  18 
Total Credits  66 
Total Credits for Degree  132 
^{1} Proposed combinations require written approval of both departments. Some combinations are not possible.  
^{2} A total of 6 credits of coursework is required to meet the Communications Requirement. For a full list of acceptable courses see Communication Requirement.  
^{3} Students who do not have B.C. High School Chemistry 12 (or its equivalent) must write the UBC Chemistry Basic Skills Test and may be required to take CHEM 100. Students interested in senior chemistry courses or who are planning to enter a career in teaching should take a second introductory chemistry course as an elective.  
^{4} MATH 120, 121, 180, and 184 are 4 credits; students should adjust electives accordingly.  
^{5} Students who do not have B.C. High School Physics 12 (or its equivalent) must take PHYS 100 prior to other PHYS courses. PHYS 102 is 3 credits and can replace both PHYS 108 or 118 and PHYS 109 or 119 requirements; students should adjust elective credits accordingly. Students who took PHYS 101 may enter the specialization but will need to take PHYS 107, 117, or 170 before the required PHYS 216.  
^{6} Other subject credits must be chosen in consultation with the advisor from the other department.  
^{7} The number of elective credits in each year is chosen to make the yearly total be 33. Some course alternatives have different credit values. Students are permitted to move elective credits between years.  
^{8} Elective credits together with required courses must fulfill the Faculty of Science’s: a) Foundational Requirement; b) Laboratory Science Requirement; c) Science Breadth Requirement; d) Science and Arts Requirements; e) Upperlevel Requirement; f) General Degree Requirements. Honours specializations have additional requirements, see Introduction to Degree Options. 

^{9} For admission to the specialization, students must be in good standing with no courses failed and a grade of at least 68% in each firstyear physics and mathematics course. See also Introduction to Degree Options, Second Year Application (science.ubc.ca/students/degree/apply), Promotion to Second Year, and Admission as a PostSecondary Transfer.  
^{10} Students who are interested in mathematical physics are advised to substitute MATH 226, 227 for MATH 217. MATH 200, 317 can also be substituted for MATH 217. Either substitution would require using 3 credits of science elective. They are also encouraged to take MATH 320, 321 later in their program.  
^{11} Consultation with an advisor in both departments is recommended before entering third and fourthyear. See also Introduction to Degree Options, Promotion Requirements and Courses Required for Promotion.  
^{12} PHYS 401 is 3 credits, PHYS 408 is 4 credits; students should adjust elective credits accordingly.  
^{13} If the honours thesis (449) is chosen from the other discipline replace PHYS 449(6) by PHYS 409(3) and adjust electives accordingly.  
^{14} The following courses are recommended: CPSC 302, PHYS 400, 407, 410, 473, 474; MATH 301, 318, 400. 
First Year  

Communication Requirement^{1}  6 
CHEM 121 (or 111)^{2}  4 
MATH 120 (or 100 or 102 or 104 or 110 or 180 or 184)^{3}  4 
MATH 121 (or 101 or 103 or 105)^{3}  4 
PHYS 107 (or 117)^{4}  3 
PHYS 108 (102 or 118)^{4}  3 
PHYS 109 (or 119)  1 
Electives^{5,6}  8 
Total Credits  33 
Second Year^{7}  
MATH 223 (or 221)^{8}  3 
MATH 226 (or 200 and 220)^{9}  3 
MATH 227 (317)  3 
MATH 215  3 
PHYS 200, 203, 216  11 
PHYS 219, 229  3 
Electives^{5,6}  7 
Total Credits  33 
Third Year^{10}  
MATH 300, 301  6 
MATH 316  3 
MATH 320^{9}, 321  6 
PHYS 301, 304  6 
PHYS 306  3 
PHYS 309 or 319  3 
Electives^{5,6}  6 
Total Credits  33 
Fourth Year^{10}  
12 credits from MATH 318, 322, 323, 400406, 412, 416429, 433440, 443, 449, 450  12 
PHYS 401 or 408^{11}  3 
PHYS 402  3 
PHYS 403 or 407  3 
PHYS 449  6 
Electives^{5,6}  6 
Total Credits  33 
Total Credits for Degree  132 
^{1} A total of 6 credits of coursework is required to meet the Communications Requirement. For a full list of acceptable courses see Communication Requirement.  
^{2} Students who do not have B.C. High School Chemistry 12 (or its equivalent) must write the UBC Chemistry Basic Skills Test and may be required to take CHEM 100. Students interested in senior chemistry courses or who are planning to enter a career in teaching should take a second introductory chemistry course as an elective.  
^{3} See UBCSFUUVICUNBC Calculus Examination Certificate. MATH 120, 121, 180, and 184 are 4 credits, MATH 110 is 6 credits, the other alternatives are 3 credits; students should adjust elective credits accordingly.  
^{4} Students who do not have B.C. High School Physics 12 (or its equivalent) must take PHYS 100 prior to other PHYS courses. PHYS 102 is 3 credits; students should adjust electives accordingly. Students that took PHYS 101 may enter the specialization but will need to take PHYS 107, 117, or 170 before the required PHYS 216.  
^{5} The number of elective credits in each year is chosen to make the yearly total be 33. Some course alternatives have different credit values. Students are permitted to move elective credits between years.  
^{6} Elective credits together with required courses must fulfill the Faculty of Science’s: a) Foundational Requirement; b) Laboratory Science Requirement; c) Science Breadth Requirement; d) Science and Arts Requirements; e) Upperlevel Requirement; f) General Degree Requirements. Honours specializations have additional requirements, see Introduction to Degree Options. 

^{7} For admission to the specialization, students must be in good standing with no courses failed and a minimum overall 68% average in each academic session. See also Introduction to Degree Options, Second Year Application (science.ubc.ca/students/degree/apply), Promotion to Second Year, and Admission as a PostSecondary Transfer.  
^{8} Students with credit for MATH 152 prior to entering this specialization can substitute it for MATH 223. MATH 223 or MATH 221 can be taken in the first year. Eligible students are highly recommended to take MATH 223.  
^{9} MATH 320 requires either 68% in MATH 226 or MATH 200 plus 80% in MATH 220. Students taking MATH 200, 220 should reduce electives by 3.  
^{10} Consultation with a Physics Department advisor is recommended before entering third and fourthyear. See also Introduction to Degree Options, Promotion Requirements and Courses Required for Promotion.  
^{11} PHYS 401 is 3 credits, PHYS 408 is 4 credits; students should adjust electives accordingly. 
The Minor consists of one of PHYS 200 or PHYS 250 plus 12 upperlevel credits of PHYS courses and a further 6 upperlevel credits of PHYS and/or ASTR courses. PHYS 301 and/or PHYS 304 must be included. Note that MATH 215 is a prerequisite for many upperlevel physics courses.