Course Descriptions

Biology, Faculty of Arts and Sciences

BIOL: Biology

BIOL 104 (3) Concepts of Biology: An Aboriginal Perspective
Introduction to core biology concepts employing an Aboriginal perspective of cyclical analysis and synthesis. Scientific method, energy acquisition, cell structure and function, genetics, evolution and diversity. Cannot be counted for credit toward the B.Sc. degree. [3-3-0]
Prerequisite: Biology 11 or permission of the instructor.
BIOL 112 (3) Biology of the Prokaryotic Cell
Introduction to biological principles using the prokaryotic cell and prokaryotic populations as paradigms. For Pre-Pharmacy students. [3-0-0]
Prerequisite: One of BIOL 11, BIOL 12 and one of CHEM 12, CHEM 111.
BIOL 116 (3) Biology for Science Majors I
First of a pair of courses that introduce students to the biological concepts necessary to continue into second-year biology. Covers evolutionary theory and its underlying genetic basis, basic cell biology, plant and animal nutrition, and energy acquisition. Credit will be granted for only BIOL 116/125 or BIOL 117/122. [3-3-0]
Prerequisite: Either (a) CHEM 11 and one of BIOL 11, BIOL 12; or (b) all of CHEM 11, BIOL 104.
Corequisite: One of CHEM 111, CHEM 121 is recommended.
BIOL 117 (3) Evolution and Ecology
Evolutionary theory and its underlying genetic basis; population, community, ecosystem, and behavioural ecology. Specific case studies and current environmental concerns. Recommended for Arts or Education students, in conjunction with BIOL 122. BIOL 117/122 cannot be used in place of BIOL 116/125 for those degree programs that require BIOL 116/125. Credit will be granted for only one of BIOL 117/122 or BIOL 116/125. [3-3-0]
BIOL 122 (3) Physiology of Multicellular Organisms
Physiological adaptations of plants and animals to their environments. Structure/function relationships of human organ systems. Recommended for Arts or Education students, in conjunction with BIOL 117. BIOL 117/122 cannot be used in place of BIOL 116/125 for those degree programs that require BIOL 116/125. Credit will be granted for either BIOL 117/122 or BIOL 116/125. Credit will be granted for only one of BIOL 122 or both of HMKN 190 and HMKN 191. [3-3-0]
Prerequisite: BIOL 117 is recommended.
BIOL 125 (3) Biology for Science Majors II
Continuation of BIOL 116. Introduction to biological concepts necessary for second-year biology. Physiology of reproduction, gas exchange, inter-organ transport, inter-organ coordination in plants and animals, and excretion and movement in animals. Ecosystem, population, community, and behavioural ecology are discussed. Credit will be granted for only one of BIOL 116/125 or BIOL 117/122. [3-3-0]
Prerequisite: BIOL 116.
Corequisite: One of CHEM 113, CHEM 123 is recommended.
BIOL 131 (3) Human Anatomy and Physiology I
Introduction to human structures and functions, emphasizing basic physiological principles, plus cell and tissue structure. Laboratory work will include gross and microscopic anatomy, and will demonstrate underlying physiological processes. This course is for students planning to enrol in BIOL 133 in their second term. Credit will be granted for only one of BIOL 131 or HMKN 190. [3-3-0]
Prerequisite: Either (a) BIOL 104 or (b) BIOL 122 or (c) all of Biology 11 or 12, Chemistry 11, and a Grade 12 science.
BIOL 133 (3) Human Anatomy and Physiology II
Continuation and completion of the comprehensive survey of human structures and functions started in BIOL 131. Credit will be granted for only one of BIOL 133 or HMKN 191. [3-3-0]
Prerequisite: BIOL 131.
BIOL 200 (3) Cell Biology
Structure and function of plant and animal cells; membrane models, cytoplasmic organelles, biological information from gene to protein, the endomembrane system, secretion, intracellular digestion, endocytosis, transport processes, cytoskeleton and cell motility. [3-0-0]
Prerequisite: BIOL 125 and one of CHEM 113, CHEM 123.
BIOL 201 (3) Introduction to Evolution and Ecology
Fundamental processes underlying adaptive evolution, speciation, and extinction. Methods used to reconstruct the evolutionary histories of, and relationships among, groups of organisms. Factors determining the distribution and abundance of organisms. Competition, predation, and an exploration of processes that promote species coexistence and lead to the maintenance of species diversity. Credit will be granted for only one of BIOL 201 or any of BIOL 203, BIOL 250. [3-0-1]
Prerequisite: BIOL 125.
BIOL 202 (3) Introduction to Biostatistics
Introduction to statistics, with emphasis on the application of commonly applied parametric and non-parametric statistical methods in the biological sciences. Use of computer software to manage data, conduct statistical analyses, and report findings in publishable formats. Credit will be granted for only one of BIOL 202 and BIOL 304. [3-2-0]
Prerequisite: MATH 100 and second-year standing.
BIOL 204 (3) Vertebrate Structure and Function
Introduction to the vertebrate phyla and their evolution; comparative study of vertebrate structure and function, with dissection of representative forms. [3-3-0]
Prerequisite: Either (a) BIOL 125 or (b) all of BIOL 117, BIOL 122.
BIOL 205 (3) Comparative Invertebrate Zoology
Introduction to the invertebrate phyla. [3-3-0]
Prerequisite: Either (a) BIOL 125 or (b) all of BIOL 117, BIOL 122.
BIOL 209 (3) Algae, Fungi, and Bryophytes
Biology of fungi, algae, lichens, and bryophytes, with emphasis on eukaryote evolution, symbiosis, life history adaptation, and importance to humans. [3-3-0]
Prerequisite: Either (a) BIOL 125 or (b) all of BIOL 117, BIOL 122.
BIOL 210 (3) Vascular Plants
Comparative study of pteridophytes, gymnosperms, and angiosperms, integrating form, function, and ecology. [3-3-0]
Prerequisite: Either (a) BIOL 125 or (b) all of BIOL 117, BIOL 122.
BIOL 228 (3) Introductory Microbiology
An introductory course providing a broad background in microbiology. Topics include structure, metabolism, diversity of micro-organisms, microbial genetics, virology, and immunology. Laboratory work will include techniques and experiments relevant to lectures. [3-3-0]
Prerequisite: BIOL 125.
Corequisite: One of CHEM 203, CHEM 213.
BIOL 231 (3) Health Science I
Overview of basic health science including the interrelationships among pathobiology, immunology, microbiology, and pharmacology. Topics covered are coordinated with topics covered in NRSG courses but may be of interest to other students. Credit will be granted for only one of BIOL 231 or HMKN 335 [3-0-0]
Prerequisite: All of BIOL 131, BIOL 133.
BIOL 232 (3) Human Infectious Disease
Agents of infectious disease in humans. Physiology and structure, mechanisms ofpathogenesis, immunological response, clinical disease caused, laboratorydiagnosis, treatment, prevention, and control. Properties and uses of antimicrobial agents, resistance, vaccines, and bioterrorism. Credit will be granted for only one of BIOL 232 or BIOL 314. [3-0-0]
Prerequisite: Either (a) BIOL 235 or (b) HINT 231.
BIOL 235 (3) Health Science II
Continuation and completion of the overview of basic health science started in BIOL 231. Credit will be granted for only one of BIOL 235 or HMKN 335. [3-0-0]
Prerequisite: BIOL 231.
BIOL 265 (3) Principles of Genetics
Mendelian genetics, gene expression, recombination, mutation, evolution, and molecular techniques. Examples will be drawn from both eukaryotic and prokaryotic systems. Credit will be granted for only one of BIOL 265 or BIOL 365. [3-0-0]
Prerequisite: BIOL 125.
BIOL 301 (3) Evolutionary Principles and Methods
An exploration of the field of Evolutionary Biology as an ongoing scientific endeavour. Current research methodology and development of concepts relating to the study of evolutionary change, adaptation, and the history of life will be examined. Credit will be granted for only one of BIOL 301 or BIOL 250. [3-0-0]
Prerequisite: One of BIOL 201, BIOL 203.
BIOL 306 (3) Ecology of Animals
Integrates recent advances in the study of animal ecology. Principles of animal community, population, and individual ecology are covered. [3-0-0]
Prerequisite: BIOL 202 and one of BIOL 201, BIOL 203.
BIOL 307 (3) Limnology
Integrated approach to freshwater science and its place in environmental science. Ecosystem ecology of inland waters, relating aquatic organisms with their physical and chemical environment. Participation in a one-day weekend field trip in September or early October is required. Credit will be granted for only one of BIOL 307 or EESC 301. [3-3-0]
Prerequisite: Third-year standing in Biology or Environmental Chemistry. One of BIOL 201, BIOL 203 or BIOL 375 is recommended.
Equivalency: EESC 301.
BIOL 308 (3) Population Biology
Introduction to the study of plant and animal populations. Demography, single species growth, competition, predation, and natural selection. [3-0-1]
Prerequisite: MATH 101 and one of BIOL 201, BIOL 203, GEOG 207.
BIOL 309 (3) Field Ecology of Plants and Soil
Applies concepts of community ecology from BIOL 203 to plants and soils. Important processes that influence plant community composition and structure; plant autecology; soil ecology; ecosystem processes. Labs provide experience in techniques commonly used by plant and soil ecologists. One full-day field trip required. [3-3-0]
Prerequisite: One of BIOL 201, BIOL 203 and one of BIOL 202, STAT 230.
BIOL 311 (3) Biochemistry I
Structure and function of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids. Principles of thermodynamics and enzyme reaction mechanisms. Enzyme kinetics. Credit will only be granted for one of BIOL 311 or BIOC 304. [3-0-0]
Prerequisite: BIOL 116 and one of CHEM 204, CHEM 214.
BIOL 312 (3) Virology
Study of viral agents of infectious disease in eukaryotes. Viral pathogens investigated with respect to classification, structure, replication, mechanisms of pathogenesis, clinical disease caused, epidemiology, laboratory diagnosis, treatment, prevention, and control. Topics include properties and uses of antiviral agents, production and use of vaccines, and bioterrorism. [3-0-0]
Prerequisite: BIOL 228.
BIOL 313 (3) Science Writing
Develop strong and efficient writing skills in the biological sciences. Improve quality of written work; develop techniques for writing, editing, evaluating, and critiquing writing; and learn attributes unique to science writing and methods for writing fluent scientific prose. [3-0-0]
BIOL 314 (3) Medical Microbiology
Bacterial and fungal agents of infectious animal diseases. Physiology and structure, mechanisms of pathogenesis, immunological response, clinical disease caused, epidemiology, laboratory diagnosis, treatment, prevention, and control. Properties and uses of antibacterial and antifungal agents, resistance, vaccines, and bioterrorism. [3-0-0]
Prerequisite: BIOL 228.
BIOL 318 (3) Immunology
Introduction to concepts of immunology. Immune system, innate immunity and complement, adaptive immunity, cellular and humoral immune response, cytokines, T-cell activation, the major histocompatibility complex, antibody structure and genetics, immune system and cancer, AIDS, autoimmunity, hypersensitivity. [3-0-0]
Prerequisite: BIOL 228.
BIOL 319 (3) Biochemistry II
Continuation of BIOL 311. Energy production via glycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation, and photosynthesis. Integration and control of carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism. Synthesis, and metabolism of nucleic acids and the biochemistry of gene function. Credit will only be granted for one of BIOL 319 or BIOC 305. [3-0-0]
Prerequisite: BIOL 311.
BIOL 330 (3) Freshwater Microbiology
Integrates taxonomy, physiology, and ecosystem functioning of freshwater microbes. Effects of microbial activities in perturbed aquatic environments will be examined. Labs introduce basic and advanced techniques for identification, enumeration, and measuring biogeochemical activity within an aquatic and experimental context. Note: this course will be offered on alternate years. [3-3-0]
Prerequisite: Either (a) one of BIOL 307, EESC 301 or (b) one of BIOL 209, BIOL 210, BIOL 275 and one of BIOL 204, BIOL 205.
BIOL 341 (3) Neurobiology
The nervous system control of animal behavior. Examples include: sensory processing and communication, predator-prey interactions, migration, motor-coordination, daily and seasonal changes in activity, cellular mechanisms of learning and memory. [3-0-0]
Prerequisite: BIOL 200.
BIOL 350 (3) Clinical Neuroscience
The structural, biochemical, and functional changes that characterize clinically-important diseases of the nervous system, including: brain and spinal cord trauma; developmental disorders, memory, and memory dysfunction; neurodegenerative diseases; mood and anxiety disorders; epilepsy; and maintenance of homeostasis. [3-0-0]
Prerequisite: One of BIOL 200, BIOL 235, BIOL 341, PSYO 230, PSYO 331, and third-year standing.
BIOL 354 (3) Cell Physiology
The cell is the fundamental unit of life. This course delineates a number of shared biological processes conducted at the cellular level and similar across a wide range of organisms (e.g., acquisition of usable energy, energy storage, transport processes, irritability, and contractability). [3-3*-0]
Prerequisite: BIOL 200 and one of BIOL 202, STAT 230 and one of PHYS 102, PHYS 122.
BIOL 356 (3) Comparative Animal Physiology
Comparative course concerning the evolution and advantage of systems design in a variety of animals. Two underlying themes include the principles of homeostasis - the regulation of a constant internal state - and the systems involved in maintaining a constant internal environment: cardiovascular, respiratory, osmoregulatory, and endocrine. [3-3*-0]
Prerequisite: BIOL 354.
BIOL 357 (3) Introduction to Entomology
General survey of the evolution, classification, and biology of insects, with a special emphasis on their functional ecology. Experiments using insect systems as well as master techniques for collecting and curating insect specimens will be conducted in the lab. A properly-curated collection is a requirement for this course. [3-3-0]
Prerequisite: One of BIOL 201, BIOL 203. BIOL 205 is recommended.
BIOL 358 (3) Plant Ecophysiology
How plants respond to their environment; the physiological mechanisms that underlie adaptations to different physical environments. Water relations, gas exchange, and mineral nutrition; temperature and energy budgets; stress tolerance. [3-0-1.5]
Prerequisite: BIOL 210 and one of BIOL 202, STAT 230.
BIOL 363 (3) Developmental Biology
Principles of animal development. Embryonic development of key invertebrates is compared to vertebrates at the morphological, genetic, and epigenetic levels. Differential gene expression and cell signaling responsible for the specification of embryonic cell fates and pattern formation will be compared in various animals. Credit will be granted for only one of BIOL 363 or BIOL 263. [3-3-0]
Prerequisite: BIOL 200.
BIOL 364 (3) Evolutionary Development
Integration of paleontology, molecular biology, developmental biology, and genetics. Evolution of animal symmetry, classical versus molecular systematics and cladistics, and the role of regulatory genes in development. [3-0-0]
Prerequisite: BIOL 200.
BIOL 366 (3) Molecular Genetics
Stresses the principles of molecular biology techniques and their relevance to the study of all areas of biology. Gene expression, gene regulation, and development genetics. [3-0-0]
Prerequisite: One of BIOL 265, BIOL 365.
BIOL 370 (3) African Savannah Biology
Analysis of the ecological, developmental, and evolutionary mechanisms responsible for the diversity of African savannah life including early hominins. [3-0-0]
Prerequisite: One of BIOL 201, BIOL 203.
BIOL 371 (3) Flora of British Columbia
Flora of BC, plant identification, and biogeoclimatic zones. Two-week (10-day) course; daily field exercises; equivalent to a one-semester lecture and laboratory course. Usually offered at the start of first term in the summer. Students must arrange their own transportation to and from local field locations. Additional fees may apply.
Prerequisite: One of BIOL 201, BIOL 203, BIOL 250 and successful completion of 48 academic credits.
BIOL 372 (3) Field Ornithology
Field study of birds. Two-week (10 day) course; daily field exercises; equivalent to a one-semester lecture and laboratory course. Usually offered first term in the summer. Students must arrange their own transportation to and from local field locations. Additional fees may apply.
Prerequisite: One of BIOL 201, BIOL 203, BIOL 204, BIOL 250 and successful completion of 48 academic credits.
BIOL 375 (3) Flora and Fauna of Inland Waters
Introduction to major groups of organisms in inland waters. Cyanobacteria, algae, plants, and animals; their ecology and evolution; and their use in biomonitoring. [3-3-0]
Prerequisite: Either (a) BIOL 125 or (b) all of BIOL 117, BIOL 122. Third-year standing in Biology, Freshwater Science, or Earth and Environmental Sciences.
BIOL 380 (3) Food and Industrial Microbiology
A detailed examination of the microbes that play a role in the manufacturing of beverages (e.g., beer and wine), solid foods (e.g., cheese), and industrial processes (e.g., waste water treatment). [3-0-0]
Prerequisite: BIOL 228.
BIOL 381 (3) Environmental Microbiology
Introduction to the diverse roles of microbes in natural and artificial environments. Topics range from community interactions to biogeochemical cycles to biodegradation and will introduce principles, practical applications, and implications of environmental microbiology. [3-0-0]
Prerequisite: BIOL 228.
BIOL 382 (3) Prokaryotic Physiology
Physiology and molecular biology of prokaryotic organisms. Molecular structure and functional aspects of prokaryotic cells including: bacterial and archaeal metabolism; energy production and use by aerobes and anaerobes; cellular growth and biosynthesis; and molecular genetics. Credit will be granted for only one of BIOL 382 or BIOL 420V when the subject matter is of the same nature. [3-0-0]
Prerequisite: BIOL 228 and one of CHEM 204, CHEM 214.
BIOL 393 (3) Biochemistry Laboratory
Topics include protein separation, enzyme kinetics, ELISA, DNA Ligation and Transformation, PCR, RFLP analysis, Agarose gel electrophoresis, STR and VNTR analysis, and gene regulation. Credit will be granted for only one of BIOL 393 or BIOC 393. [0-4-0]
Prerequisite: BIOL 311.
Corequisite: BIOL 366.
Equivalency: BIOC 393.
BIOL 401 (3) Spatial Ecology
Spatial patterns in ecology, exploring ways to describe variation and mechanisms that give rise to patterns. Dispersal, metapopulation and source-sink dynamics, connectivity and fragmentation, heterogeneity, disturbance, edges, and dynamics of geographical ranges. Credit will be granted for only one of BIOL 401 or BIOL 512. [3-0-0]
Prerequisite: One of BIOL 202, STAT 230.
BIOL 410 (3) Plant-Microbe Interactions
Ecological, physiological, and molecular perspectives will be covered on root-associated micro-organisms with the potential to benefit plants. Implications for agriculture, forestry, bioremediation, and conservation. Credit will be granted for only one of BIOL 410 or BIOL 510. [3-0-0]
Prerequisite: BIOL 228.
BIOL 414 (3) Advanced Field Ecology
Independent research projects in the field, while considering application of methods to solving problems in ecology. Study design, hypothesis development, primary data collection, analysis, and interpretation; formal manuscripts for publication. Credit will be granted for only one of BIOL 414 or BIOL 514. [3-0-1]
Prerequisite: One of BIOL 202, GEOG 271 and one of BIOL 201, BIOL 203, GEOG 207.
BIOL 417 (3) Evolutionary Ecology
Advanced survey of the field of evolutionary ecology: the study of the ecological basis for the evolution of life histories, sex, mating strategies, and foraging strategies. [3-0-1]
Prerequisite: BIOL 308 and one of BIOL 202, STAT 230.
BIOL 420 (3-9) d Special Topics in Biology
With permission of the unit, this course may be taken more than once with a different topic. Credit will be granted for only one of BIOL 420 and BIOL 520 when the subject matter is of the same nature.
BIOL 422 (3) Conservation Biology
Scientific basis of conservation biology. Analysis of demographic data, population models, and extinction risks. Examine complex habitat, landscape, genetic, and trophic interactions that affect populations. Conservation approaches including habitat planning, reserve design, surrogacy, and policy. Credit will be granted for only one of BIOL 422 or BIOL 513. [3-0-0]
Prerequisite: BIOL 308.
BIOL 440 (6) Honours Thesis
Students undertake a research project on a specific topic as agreed upon by the faculty member and the student. A written thesis is required, with a public presentation of the thesis in the form of a poster or a seminar.
Prerequisite: Permission of the unit head and course supervisor.
BIOL 444 (3) Dynamic Modelling of Human-Environment Systems
Design and use of dynamic models of complex systems; spatial modelling of the environment; agent- and individual-based models; applications to biodiversity conservation, environmental management, land use change and natural resource management. Credit will be granted for only one of BIOL 444, BIOL 544, EESC 444, or EESC 544. [3-3-0]
Prerequisite: One of MATH 100, MATH 101 and one of APSC 254, BIOL 202, GEOG 271, PSYO 271, STAT 121, STAT 230. Third-year standing. At least three credits of second-year BIOL/EESC and three credits of third-year BIOL/EESC are strongly recommended.
Equivalency: EESC 444.
BIOL 452 (3-12) d Directed Studies in Biology
Allows investigation on a specific topic as agreed upon by the faculty member and the student. Permission of the Biology unit head required. No more than 6 credits with the same supervisor. No more than 9 credits per academic year.
BIOL 459 (3) Behavioural Ecology
Ecological and evolutionary basis for behaviour, the role of behaviour in enabling an organism to adapt to its environment. Topics include optimization and game theoretic approaches, foraging, sociality, mating, and parental care. Laboratory provides opportunities to explore concepts covered in lecture. [3-3-0]
Prerequisite: One of BIOL 201, BIOL 203.
BIOL 460 (3) Population Genetics
Concepts in empirical and theoretical population genetics. Primary processes shaping genetic variation within and among populations. Methodologies for measuring genetic variation in nature, and practical applications of population genetic principles to genomics, molecular evolution, human evolution, and conservation biology. Credit will be granted for only one of BIOL 460 or BIOL 560. [3-0-0]
Prerequisite: One of BIOL 201, BIOL 203, BIOL 250.
BIOL 461 (3) Cell Signaling
Explores how signal transduction mechanisms link environmental changes to gene expression. "Quorum sensing" in bacteria, origin of metazoan signaling, signaling pathways between prokaryotes and eukaryotes, role of "chaperones" in cell survival and cell death, evolution of signaling pathways and role of three-dimensional analysis of protein interactions. [3-0-0]
Prerequisite: BIOL 354.
BIOL 467 (3) Comparative Environmental Physiology
Survey of physiological adaptations of animals to different environments. [3-0-0]
Prerequisite: BIOL 354.
Corequisite: BIOL 356.
BIOL 468 (3) Molecular Approaches in Ecology and Evolution
Techniques for collecting molecular and population genetic data. Applications in ecology, evolution, and conservation. Characteristics of molecular markers, associated analytical approaches, emerging genomic technologies, and case studies. Credit will be granted for only one of BIOL 468 or BIOL 568. [3-0-0]
Prerequisite: One of BIOL 201, BIOL 203, BIOL 250.
BIOL 480 (3) Mycology
A detailed examination of the fungi. Emphasis is on taxonomy, evolution, genetics, ecology, and physiology of the Chytridiomycota, Zygomycota, Glomeromycota, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota. The seminar emphasizes discussion and interpretation of primary literature, and quantitative data. [3-0-1.5]
Prerequisite: BIOL 311.
BIOL 501 (3) Biology Seminar
Required for all Biology M.Sc. students. Based on Biology seminar speakers and their research programs. Students will attend the seminars and learn skills required to critically evaluate the underlying research.
BIOL 502 (3) The Culture of Science
Practical and philosophical grounding in the practice of professional research and ancillary activities in the biological sciences. Sources of funding and grant writing; scientific publication and peer review; scientific objectivity and advocacy; communicating with scientific and non-scientific audiences; application of scientific results to societal problems. [3-0-0]
BIOL 503 (3) Integrated Approaches to Scientific Problems
Seminar on a major biological question, with readings from the molecular through the ecosystem levels of biological organization using a variety of taxa. Example topics: genetically modified organisms, cataloging and preserving biodiversity, controlling malaria, and plant secondary metabolites. [0-0-3]
BIOL 507 (3) The Biochemical Basis of Disease
Draws on foundational knowledge of normal biochemistry. Inborn errors of metabolism, abnormal growth and metabolism, neurodegeneration and inappropriate protein folding, deficiency diseases, endocrine disorders, and cardiovascular and hematological disorders. Credit will be granted for only one of BIOL 507 or BIOC 407.
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor.
BIOL 510 (3) Plant-Microbe Interactions
Ecological, physiological, and molecular perspectives will be covered on root-associated micro-organisms with the potential to benefit plants. Implications for agriculture, forestry, bioremediation, and conservation. Credit will be granted for only one of BIOL 510 or BIOL 410.
BIOL 512 (3) Spatial Ecology
Examination of major spatial patterns in ecology, exploring ways to describe variation and the mechanisms that give rise to patterns. Dispersal, metapopulation and source-sink dynamics, connectivity and fragmentation, heterogeneity, disturbance, edges, and dynamics of geographical ranges. Credit will be granted for only one of BIOL 512 or BIOL 401. [3-0-0]
BIOL 513 (3) Conservation Biology
Scientific basis of conservation biology. Obtain and analyze demographic data, develop population models, and project extinction risks. Complex habitat, landscape, genetic, and trophic interactions that affect population dynamics. Conservation approaches including habitat planning, reserve design, surrogacy, and policy. Credit will be granted for only one of BIOL 422 or BIOL 513. [3-0-0]
BIOL 514 (3) Advanced Field Ecology
Independent research projects in the field, while considering application of methods to solving problems in ecology. Study design, hypothesis development, primary data collection, analysis, and interpretation; formal manuscripts for publication. Credit will be granted for only one of BIOL 514 or BIOL 414.
BIOL 520 (3-9) d Special Topics in Biology
With permission of the unit, this course may be taken more than once with a different topic. Credit will be granted for only one of BIOL 520 or BIOL 420 when the subject matter is of the same nature.
BIOL 544 (3) Dynamic Modelling of Human-Environment Systems
Design and use of dynamic models of complex systems; spatial modelling of the environment; agent- and individual-based models; applications to biodiversity conservation, environmental management, land use change and natural resource management. Credit will be granted for only one of EESC 544, EESC 444, BIOL 444 or BIOL 544.
Equivalency: EESC 544.
BIOL 552 (3-9) d Directed Studies in Biology
Allows investigation on a specific topic as agreed upon by the supervisory committee and the student. This course may be taken more than once with a different topic. No more than 6 credits may be completed with the same instructor.
Prerequisite: Permission of the graduate program advisor and the course instructor.
BIOL 560 (3) Population Genetics
Concepts in empirical and theoretical population genetics. Primary processes shaping genetic variation within and among populations. Methodologies for measuring genetic variation in nature, and practical applications of population genetic principles to genomics, molecular evolution, human evolution, and conservation biology. Credit will be granted for only one of BIOL 560 or BIOL 460. [3-0-0]
BIOL 567 (3) Comparative Environmental Physiology
Advanced principles of environmental physiology. Examines the responses of adapted and non-adapted vertebrates to changes in the environment. Physical constraints on evolution will be discussed in the context of adaptations. Typical stressors include salinity, water limitation, hypoxia, altitude, depth, temperature extremes, or exercise. [3-0-0]
BIOL 568 (3) Molecular Approaches in Ecology and Evolution
Techniques for collecting molecular and population genetic data. Applications in ecology, evolution, and conservation. Characteristics of molecular markers, associated analytical approaches, emerging genomic technologies, and case studies. Credit will be granted for only one of BIOL 568 or BIOL 468. [3-0-0]
BIOL 599 (18) M.Sc. Thesis
Pass/Fail.
BIOL 699 (0) Ph.D. Thesis
Pass/Fail.

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