- MATH 100 (3)
**Differential Calculus with Applications to Physical Sciences and Engineering** - Derivatives of elementary functions, limits. Covers applications and modelling: graphing and optimization. Credit will be granted for only one of MATH 100 or MATH 116. [3-1-0]

*Prerequisite:*Either (a) a score of 67% or higher in one of MATH 12, PREC 12 or (b) a score of 60% or higher in one of MATH 125, MATH 126.

- MATH 101 (3)
**Integral Calculus with Applications to Physical Sciences and Engineering** - Definite integral, integration techniques, applications, modelling, linear ODE's. Credit will be granted for only one of MATH 101 or MATH 142. [3-1-0]

*Prerequisite:*MATH 100.

- MATH 111 (3)
**Finite Mathematics** - Intended for students not majoring in Mathematics or the Sciences who want some exposure to mathematical thinking. Logic, set theory, combinatorics, probability theory, matrix algebra, linear programming, graphs, and networks. This course cannot be taken for credit towards a B.Sc. degree. [3-0-1]

*Prerequisite:*Foundations of Mathematics 11.

- MATH 116 (3)
**Calculus I for Management and Economics** - The derivative; rate of change; derivatives of algebraic, logarithmic, and exponential functions; applications to marginal analysis; elasticity of demand; optimization and curve-sketching. Credit will be granted for only one of MATH 116 or MATH 100. [3-0-1]

*Prerequisite:*One of MATH 12, PREC 12, MATH 125, MATH 126.

- MATH 125 (3)
**Pre-Calculus** - Prepares students for a calculus course. Functions and their graphs; inverse functions; algebraic, exponential, logarithmic, trigonometric functions; trigonometric identities; matrices; determinants; complex numbers; binomial theorem; sequences; series; conic sections. This course is dependent on a minimum enrolment and cannot be taken towards a B.A. or B.Sc. degree. Credit will be granted for only one of MATH 125 or MATH 126. [3-0-1]

*Prerequisite:*One of Principles of Mathematics 11, Pre-Calculus 11, Foundations of Mathematics 12.

- MATH 126 (3)
**Basic Mathematics: An Aboriginal Perspective** - Topics used in university courses: algebra, functions, graphs, basic geometry, trigonometry, exponential and logarithmic functions. Employs cyclical process of analysis and synthesis common to some Aboriginal cultures. Restricted to first-year students. Cannot be counted for credit toward the B.Sc. degree. Credit will be granted for only one of MATH 126 or MATH 125. [3-0-1]

*Prerequisite:*Foundations of Mathematics 11.

- MATH 142 (3)
**Calculus II for Management and Economics** - Continuation of MATH 116. Antiderivatives, the definite integral, integration techniques, numerical integration, double integrals, applications of integration including application to probability, elementary differential equations, functions of several variables; partial derivatives; Lagrange multipliers. Credit will be granted for only one of MATH 142 or MATH 101. [3-0-0]

*Prerequisite:*MATH 116 or MATH 100 with permission of the instructor.

- MATH 160 (3)
**Mathematics for Elementary Teachers** - Numeration systems, algorithms, elementary number theory, rational numbers, irrational numbers, real numbers, basic ideas in geometry, triangles, three-dimensional geometry. This course cannot be used for credit towards a B.A. or B.Sc. degree. [3-0-0]

- MATH 200 (3)
**Calculus III** - Analytic geometry in two and three dimensions, partial and directional derivatives, chain rule, maxima and minima, second derivative test, Lagrange multipliers, multiple integrals with applications. [3-1-0]

*Prerequisite:*MATH 101.

- MATH 220 (3)
**Mathematical Proof** - Sets and functions; induction; cardinality; properties of the real numbers; sequences, series, and limits. Logic, structure, style, and clarity of proofs emphasized throughout. [3-0-1]

*Prerequisite:*MATH 101.

- MATH 221 (3)
**Matrix Algebra** - Systems of linear equations, operations on matrices, determinants, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, diagonalization of symmetric matrices. [3-1-0]

*Prerequisite:*One of MATH 100, MATH 116.

*Corequisite:*One of MATH 101, MATH 142.

- MATH 225 (3)
**Introduction to Differential Equations** - First-order equations, initial value problems, existence and uniqueness theorems, second-order linear equations, superposition of solutions, independence, general solutions, non-homogeneous equations, phaseplane analysis, numerical methods, matrix methods for linear systems, and applications of differential equations to the physical, biological, and social sciences. [3-0-1]

*Prerequisite:*MATH 101.

*Corequisite:*MATH 221 is recommended.

- MATH 302 (3)
**Introduction to Probability** - Basic notions of probability, random variables, expectation and conditional expectation, limit theorems. [3-0-0]

*Prerequisite:*MATH 200.

*Equivalency:*STAT 303. - MATH 303 (3)
**Numerical Analysis** - Numerical techniques for basic mathematical processes and their analysis. Taylor polynomials, root-finding, linear systems, eigenvalues, approximating derivatives, locating minimizers, approximating integrals, solving differential equations. Credit will be granted for only one of MATH 303 or COSC 303. [3-1-0]

*Prerequisite:*All of COSC 111, MATH 200, MATH 221.

*Equivalency:*COSC 303. - MATH 307 (3)
**Applied Linear Algebra** - Dependence/independence, bases and orthogonality; linear transformations from R
^{n}to R^{m}; change of basis; triangularization; quadratic forms in variables. [3-0-0]

*Prerequisite:*MATH 221.

- MATH 308 (3)
**Euclidean Geometry** - Classical plane geometry, solid geometry, spherical trigonometry, polyhedra, and linear and affine transformations. Linear algebra proofs are used. [3-0-0]

*Prerequisite:*MATH 221.

*Corequisite:*MATH 307 is recommended.

- MATH 311 (3)
**Abstract Algebra I** - Properties of integers, the integers modulo n, groups, subgroups, cyclic groups, permutation groups, linear groups, quotient groups and homomorphisms, isomorphism theorems, direct products, and an introduction to rings and fields. [3-0-0]

*Prerequisite:*MATH 220.

- MATH 312 (3)
**Introduction to Number Theory** - Euclidean algorithm, congruences, Fermat's theorem, applications, diophantine equations. Distribution of the prime numbers. [3-0-0]

*Prerequisite:*12 credits of MATH.

- MATH 313 (3)
**Topics in Number Theory** - Topics chosen by the instructor. These might include: division algorithms, group theory, continued fractions, primality testing, factoring. [3-0-0]

*Prerequisite:*MATH 312.

- MATH 317 (3)
**Calculus IV** - Parametrizations, inverse and implicit functions, integrals with respect to length and area; grad, div, and curl, and theorems of Green, Gauss, and Stokes. [3-0-0]

*Prerequisite:*MATH 200.

- MATH 319 (3)
**Introduction to Partial Differential Equations** - Methods of separation of variable, Fourier series, heat, wave and Laplace's equations, boundary value problems, eigenfunction expansions, and Sturm-Liouville problems. [3-0-1]

*Prerequisite:*All of MATH 200, MATH 225.

- MATH 323 (3)
**Applied Abstract Algebra** - Congruences and groups, introduction to rings and fields, and topics chosen from: lattices, Boolean algebra and applications, balanced incomplete block designs, introduction to cryptography, applications to group theory. [3-0-0]

*Prerequisite:*MATH 221.

*Corequisite:*MATH 311.

- MATH 327 (3)
**Analysis I** - Provides a rigorous foundation of calculus. Real numbers; limits and continuous functions; differentiation; elementary functions; the elementary real integral; normed vector spaces. [3-0-0]

*Prerequisite:*MATH 220.

- MATH 328 (3)
**Analysis II** - Continuation of MATH 327. Limits in normed vector spaces; compactness, series; the integral in one variable and approximation with convolutions. [3-0-0]

*Prerequisite:*MATH 327.

- MATH 330 (3)
**Abstract Algebra II** - Covers properties of rings and fields, factorization, polynomials over a field, field extensions, field isomorphisms and automorphism, group of automorphisms, and Galois theory of unsolvability. [3-0-0]

*Prerequisite:*MATH 311.

- MATH 339 (3)
**Introduction to Dynamical Systems** - Non-linear systems and iteration of functions; flows, phase portraits, periodic orbits, chaotic attractors, fractals, and invariant sets. [3-0-0]

*Prerequisite:*All of MATH 200, MATH 225.

- MATH 340 (3)
**Introduction to Linear Programming** - Linear programming problems, dual problems, the simplex algorithm, solution of primal and dual problems, sensitivity analysis. Additional topics chosen from: Karmarkar's algorithm, non-linear programming, game theory, applications. [3-0-0]

*Prerequisite:*MATH 221.

- MATH 350 (3)
**Complex Variables and Applications** - Covers analytic functions, Cauchy-Riemann equations, power series, Laurent series, elementary functions, contour integrals, and poles and residues. Introduction to conformal mapping and applications of analysis to problems in physics and engineering. [3-0-0]

*Prerequisite:*MATH 200.

- MATH 408 (3)
**Differential Geometry** - Local theory of curves, Frenet-Serret apparatus, fundamentals of the Gaussian theory of surface, normal curvature, geodesics, Gaussian and mean curvatures, theorema egregium, an introduction to Riemannian geometry, Gauss-Bonnet Theorem, and applications. [3-0-0]

*Prerequisite:*All of MATH 200, MATH 221 and 9 credits of 300-level MATH.

- MATH 409 (3)
**Mathematics of Financial Derivatives** - Pricing theory of financial derivative securities. Options and markets, present and future values, price movement modeled by Brownian motion, Ito's formula, parbolic partial differential equations, Black-Scholes model. Prices of European options as solutions of initial/boundary value problems for heat equations, American options, free boundary problems. [3-0-0]

*Prerequisite:*All of MATH 221, MATH 319 and one of MATH 302, STAT 303.

- MATH 410 (3)
**Introduction to General Topology** - General (point-set) topology. Naïve set theory, relations and functions, order relations, cardinality, Axiom of Choice, well-ordering, topological spaces, bases, subspaces, product spaces, limit points, continuous functions, homeomorphisms, metric spaces, connectedness, compactness, countability axioms, separation axioms, Urysohn lemma, Tietze extension theorem, Urysohn metrization theorem, Tychonoff theorem. [3-0-0]

*Prerequisite:*MATH 327.

- MATH 411 (3)
**Introduction to Metric Spaces** - Metric spaces, convergence in metric spaces, complete spaces, compactness, the contraction principle, Ekeland's variation principle, and the Baire category. [3-0-0]

*Prerequisite:*MATH 328.

- MATH 429 (3)
**Analysis III** - Continuation of MATH 328. Fourier series, improper integrals, the Fourier integral, calculus in vector spaces. Credit will be granted for only one of MATH 429 or MATH 329. [3-0-0]

*Prerequisite:*MATH 328.

- MATH 430 (3/12) d
**Special Topics in Optimization and Analysis** - Students should consult the unit for the particular topics offered in a given year. [3-0-0]

*Prerequisite:*Third-year standing and permission of the unit.

- MATH 432 (3/12) d
**Special Topics in Algebra and Number Theory** - Students should consult the unit for the particular topics offered in a given year. [3-0-0]

*Prerequisite:*Third-year standing and permission of the unit.

- MATH 433 (3)
**Theory of Error-Correcting Codes** - Finite fields, linear codes, cyclic codes, BCH codes. Additional topics chosen from: Reed-Solomon codes, applications to digital audio recording, non-linear codes, convolutional codes, majority logic decoding, weight distributions of codes, codes and designs, bounds on the size of codes. [3-0-0]

*Prerequisite:*All of MATH 221, MATH 311.

- MATH 441 (3)
**Modelling of Discrete Optimization Problems** - Formulation of real-world optimization problems using techniques such as linear programming, network flows, integer programming, and dynamic programming. Solution by appropriate software. [3-0-0]

*Prerequisite:*MATH 340.

- MATH 442 (3)
**Optimization in Graphs and Networks** - Basic graph theory, emphasizing trees, tree growing algorithms, and proof techniques. Problems chosen from: shortest paths, maximum flows, minimum cost flows, matchings, graph colouring. Linear programming duality will be an important tool. [3-0-0]

*Prerequisite:*MATH 340.

- MATH 443 (3)
**Graph Theory** - Introductory course in mostly non-algorithmic topics. Planarity and Kuratowski's theorem, graph colouring, graph minors, random graphs, cycles in graphs, Ramsey theory, extremal graph theory. Proofs emphasized. [3-0-0]

*Prerequisite:*At least 12 credits of 300-level MATH.

- MATH 446 (3)
**Topics in the History of Mathematics I** - Historical development of concepts and techniques in areas chosen from geometry, number theory, algebra, calculus, probability, and analysis. The focus is on historically significant writings of important contributors and on famous problems of mathematics. [3-0-0]

*Prerequisite:*27 credits of MATH.

- MATH 448 (3/6) d
**Directed Studies in Mathematics** - Investigation of a specific topic as agreed upon by the student and the faculty supervisor. Students will be expected to complete a project and make an oral presentation.

*Prerequisite:*15 credits of 300- or 400-level MATH and STAT courses and permission of the unit and faculty supervisor.

- MATH 459 (3)
**Mathematical Biology** - Mathematical modelling in biological disciplines such as population dynamics, ecology, pattern formation, tumour growth, immune response, biomechanics, and epidemiology. Theory of such models formulated as difference equations, ordinary differential equations, and partial differential equations. [3-0-0]

*Prerequisite:*MATH 225. MATH 319 is recommended.

- MATH 460 (3/12) d
**Special Topics in Mathematics** - Students should consult the unit for the particular topics offered in a given year. [3-0-0]

*Prerequisite:*Third-year standing and permission of the unit.

- MATH 461 (3)
**Continuous Optimization** - Convex analysis, non-smooth optimization, Karush-Kuhn-Tucker theorem, iterative methods. [3-0-0]

*Prerequisite:*MATH 327.

- MATH 463 (3/12) d
**Special Topics in Mathematical Biology** - Students should consult the unit for the particular topics offered in a given year. [3-0-0]

*Prerequisite:*Third-year standing and permission of the unit.

- MATH 523 (3)
**Combinatorial Optimization** - Theory of the nature of problems from combinatorial optimization; solution techniques and theory; topics from integer programming, network flows, and matroids. [3-0-0]

- MATH 538 (3)
**Algebraic Number Theory** - Ring localizations, integral elements, prime and maximal ideals, Dedekind domains, unique factorization of ideals, algebraic number fields, integral bases, discriminants, norms, class number. [3-0-0]

- MATH 539 (3)
**Analytic Number Theory** - Properties of arithmetic functions. Average values, densities, analytic properties of the zeta function, formula for the nth prime, Prime Number Theorem, Dirichlet characters, Prime Number Theorem for arithmetic progressions. [3-0-0]

- MATH 546 (3)
**Methods and Applications of Partial Differential Equations** - Theory of partial differential equations and their solutions. Classical linear equations: the Laplace equation, heat equation, and wave equation. Green's functions, conformal mapping, and traveling waves. Numerical Methods. [3-0-0]

- MATH 549 (12)
**Thesis for Master's Degree** - Pass/Fail.

- MATH 555 (3)
**Theory of Error-Correcting Codes** - Fundamental concepts of communication and coding theory; major types of codes currently used in applications and the mathematical techniques needed to develop them; recent developments in coding theory and the connection between codes and other mathematical objects. [3-0-0]

- MATH 559 (3)
**Mathematical Biology** - Mathematical methods in modeling biological processes at levels from cell biochemistry to community ecology. [3-0-0]

- MATH 563 (3)
**Convex Optimization and Non-smooth Analysis** - Separation and support properties of convex sets; polar, tangent, and normal cones; Fenchel conjugation; subgradient calculus for convex functions; Fenchel duality for convex optimization problems; algorithms for non-differentiable optimization; non-smooth analysis and optimization for non-convex objects. [3-0-0]

- MATH 570 (1-3) c
**Optimization and Analysis I** - Topics from optimization and analysis that are particularly relevant for beginning graduate students at the master's level. [0-0-3]

- MATH 590 (1-3) c
**Graduate Seminar** - Presentation and discussion of recent results in the mathematical, statistical, or related literature. Credit may be obtained more than once. Pass/Fail. [0-0-1]

- MATH 600 (2-15) c
**Topics in Algebra** - Topics chosen from group theory, rings and modules, Galois theory, commutative rings, categorical algebra, representations of finite groups, and other topics.

- MATH 601 (2-15) c
**Topics in Analysis** - Topics, which depend on the students' background and requirements and on the instructor, are drawn from functional analysis, measure and integration theory, non-smooth analysis, and variational analysis. [3-0-0]

- MATH 604 (2-15) c
**Topics in Optimization** - Advanced theoretical, algorithmic, or computational topics in optimization. Non-smooth optimization and analysis in infinite-dimensional spaces; monotone operators; subgradient calculus for non-convex functions; semidefinite programming. Interior point methods, projection, and other non-differentiable algorithms. Complexity of optimization algorithms; practical overview of optimization solvers for continuous and discrete problems; numerical and symbolic computation of Fenchel conjugates. [3-0-0]

- MATH 605 (2-15) c
**Topics in Applied Mathematics** - Topics will be chosen from different areas of applied mathematics. Content will be determined so as to complement course offerings and meet the needs of the students. Credit for this course may be obtained more than once.

- MATH 610 (2-15) c
**Topics in Pure Mathematics** - Topics chosen will depend on the instructor. These may include algebraic number theory, group representation theory, analytic number theory, category theory, combinatorics or algebraic topology.

- MATH 612 (2-15) c
**Topics in Mathematical Biology** - This course will allow students to explore topics in mathematical biology outside of the core offerings. Topics will depend on student demand and instructor availability. Credit for this course may be obtained more than once.

- MATH 620 (2-15) c
**Directed Studies in Mathematics** - Advanced study under the direction of a faculty member may be arranged in special situations.

- MATH 649 (0) d
**Ph.D. Thesis** - Pass/Fail.

- MATH 670 (1-3) c
**Optimization and Analysis II** - Topics from optimization and analysis that are particularly relevant for master's students nearing completion of their program, as well as beginning Ph.D. students. [0-0-3]