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Chemistry

The Department of Chemistry offers opportunities for study leading to bachelor's, master's and doctoral degrees. For information regarding advanced degrees, see graduate Chemistry. It is assumed that all students entering courses of the Department have passed Chemistry 11 or the equivalent; those who have not must consult the Department before registering.

Students wishing to enter second-year chemistry specializations must apply using the on-line process administered by the Faculty of Science. Students will receive an email communication regarding the process in late May or early June. Students may apply for direct admittance to a Combined Major or Combined Honours chemistry specialization. Due to the similarity between the Major and Honours chemistry specializations in second year, the Faculty of Science only admits students directly to the Major. Qualified students wishing to transfer to Honours or into another chemistry specialization should contact the undergraduate advisor for advice. Students accepted to one of the specializations will register using a Standard Timetable (STT) available on the registration system. The progress of continuing chemistry students will be reviewed at the end of each academic year. Students making satisfactory progress do not require annual specialization approval. The Department will contact students with unsatisfactory standing in Honours or Combined Honours.

Co-operative Education Program

Co-operative Education is a process of education which integrates academic study with related and supervised work experience in co-operating employer organizations.

A Co-operative Education program is available for students in Chemistry. The program is intended to help prepare interested and qualified students for research careers in industry with sixteen months of work placement supervised by practising professionals. Faculty advisors also visit students at their place of work and provide advice on technical reports required of all students in the Program.

To be eligible, students must be admissible into the third-year Chemistry B.Sc. program with second-class standing. Admission is by application to the Co-op Office in February prior to third year (transfer students may be considered later). Selection of students will be based on academic performance and general suitability to the work environment as determined by resumé and interview. The total enrolment will be subject to the availability of appropriate work placements and faculty advisors. The work placements are arranged by mutual agreement between students and employing organizations. Participating students register for CHEM 398, 399, 498, or 499 as appropriate, and pay the Co-operative Education Program Fee per course (see Program and Course Fees).

Graduation in the Co-operative Education program requires a student to complete each of CHEM 398, 399, 498, 499, in addition to the normal academic requirements. Students will have each satisfactorily completed course noted on their academic record. Detailed information on the program may be obtained from the Department of Chemistry or from the Co-operative Education Program.

Courses

Comments for First-Year Students

CHEM 123 is the normal prerequisite for admission to Chemistry specializations. Students with credit only for Chemistry 11 take CHEM 111 before taking CHEM 123, whereas those with credit for Chemistry 12 take CHEM 121. In addition, students applying for entrance to Chemistry specializations must have completed MATH 100 and MATH 101 (or their equivalents).

Comments for Second-Year Students

Second-year course registration in Chemistry specializations uses Standard Timetables (STT). The comments in the Course Schedule associated with an STT provide useful information that students should consult before contacting an Undergraduate Advisor. Students are required to have completed the equivalent of two one-semester introductory chemistry courses. Students intending to take organic chemistry (CHEM 203/213 or CHEM 233) should be familiar with the organic chemistry content found in CHEM 123.

Comments for Third-Year Students

It is recommended that students taking BIOL 201 should have completed a university-level biology course with cell biology content (e.g., BIOL 200). Major and Combined Major students normally complete the appropriate laboratory courses (CHEM 315/325/335/345) in third year to have prerequisites for the fourth-year laboratory course CHEM 445.

Comments for Fourth-Year Students

It is recommended that students taking BIOL 201 should have completed a university-level biology course with cell biology content (e.g., BIOL 200).

With permission from the Undergraduate Advisor, Major or Combined Major students may substitute CHEM 445 and 3 credits of 400-level CHEM lecture electives with CHEM 449. Honours students are required to take CHEM 449.

Laboratory and Tutorial Courses

Students taking any course which has an associated laboratory and/or tutorial must register in these secondary activities in addition to the lecture portion of the course. No exception will be made. Students who believe they may qualify for an exemption from a laboratory (e.g., if repeating the course, or have transfer credit from another institution) are advised to contact the appropriate laboratory instructor directly. Students who miss the first laboratory meeting of a course without having made prior arrangements with the instructor concerned risk having their registration in the course cancelled and their space reallocated to another student.

Specific Focus Areas

Major and honours students may wish to direct their elective credits towards a specific focus area in chemistry. The Department has generated recommendations for course selections designed to build strength in a Specific Focus Area. Students are encouraged to use these recommendations as a guide.

Specializations

Major (0409): Chemistry (CHEM)

First Year
Communication Requirement1 3
CHEM 121 (or 111) 4
CHEM 123 (or 113) 4
MATH 100 or 102 or 1042 3
MATH 101 or 103 or 1053 3
PHYS 100-level4 6
Electives5,6 7
Total Credits 30
Second Year
CHEM 2037 4
CHEM 208 3
CHEM 211 4
CHEM 213, 245 4
CHEM 218 3
MATH 200 3
MATH 221 3
Electives5,6 6
Total Credits 30
Third and Fourth Years
BIOL 201 (or BIOC 202)8 3
CHEM 3001 3
CHEM 304 3
CHEM 311 3
CHEM 312 3
CHEM 325, 345 4
Two of CHEM 305, 313, 318, 327, 330, 412 6
CHEM 4459 3
CHEM Electives6,9,10 12
Electives5,6 20
Total Credits 60
Total Credits for Degree 120
1 Of the 6 credits required to satisfy the Communication Requirement, 3 credits are specified in third year (CHEM 300). The remaining 3 credits must be chosen from the list of acceptable courses, see Communication Requirement. ENGL credits beyond those needed to satisfy the Communication Requirement may be applied towards the Faculty of Science Arts Requirement.
2 MATH 180 or 184 or 120 may substitute for any of the specified differential calculus courses listed by decreasing the electives by 1 credit. MATH 110 may substitute for any of the specified differential calculus courses listed by decreasing the electives by 3 credits.
3 MATH 121 may substitute for any of the specified integral calculus courses listed by decreasing the electives by 1 credit.
4 Chosen from 100-level PHYS courses, excluding PHYS 100. PHYS 109 or 119 are recommended. Students without Physics 12 must take PHYS 100 before taking other 100-level PHYS courses.
5 Electives must be taken to ensure the Faculty of Science: a) Arts Requirement, b) Upper-level Requirement, and c) Breadth Requirement are met. Elective credits may be redistributed among the years in this specialization, provided the total number remains the same. The year level of an elective does not need to correspond to the year level of the specialization. Students who do not have credit for Biology 11 or Biology 12 must take 3 credits of 100-level BIOL (usually BIOL 111). Students with credit for Biology 11 or 12 must successfully complete 3 credits of an ASTR, BIOL, EOSC, or GEOB lecture course.
6 Students may elect to apply elective credits towards a Specific Focus Area in Chemistry.
7 Students with CHEM 235 and a score of 76% or higher in CHEM 233 may apply for admission to this specialization and will be allowed to use CHEM 233 and 235 in place of CHEM 203.
8 BIOC 203 is a suitable substitute for this requirement. For students without credit for BIOL 200, selecting BIOL 201 requires either CHEM 313 or CHEM 330.
9 With permission, CHEM 449 or 6 credits of CHEM 445 may be substituted for 3 credits of CHEM 445 and 3 credits of 400-level CHEM lecture electives.
10 Chosen from 300- and 400- level CHEM lecture courses. At least 3 credits must be chosen from 400-level CHEM lecture courses, excluding the credits associated with substitutions involving CHEM 445 or CHEM 449, as detailed in footnote 9.

Honours (0213): Chemistry (CHEM)

First Year
Communication Requirement1 3
CHEM 121 (or 111) 4
CHEM 123 (or 113) 4
MATH 100 or 102 or 1042 3
MATH 101 or 103 or 1053 3
PHYS 100-level4 6
Electives5,6 10
Total Credits 33
Second Year
CHEM 2037 4
CHEM 208 3
CHEM 211 4
CHEM 213, 245 4
CHEM 218 3
MATH 200 3
MATH 221 3
Electives5,6 9
Total Credits 33
Third Year
BIOL 201 (or BIOC 202)8 3
CHEM 3001 3
CHEM 304 3
CHEM 311 3
CHEM 312 3
CHEM 319, 329 2
CHEM 325, 345 4
Three of CHEM 305, 313, 318, 327, 330 9
Electives5,6 3
Total Credits 33
Fourth Year
CHEM 412 3
CHEM 449 6
CHEM electives6,9 12
Electives5,6 12
Total Credits 33
Total Credits for Degree 132
1 Of the 6 credits required to satisfy the Communication Requirement, 3 credits are specified in third year (CHEM 300). The remaining 3 credits must be chosen from the list of acceptable courses, see Communication Requirement. ENGL credits beyond those needed to satisfy the Communication Requirement may be applied towards the Faculty of Science Arts Requirement.
2 MATH 180 or 184 or 120 may substitute for any of the specified differential calculus courses listed by decreasing the electives by 1 credit. MATH 110 may substitute for any of the specified differential calculus courses listed by decreasing the electives by 3 credits.
3 MATH 121 may substitute for any of the specified integral calculus courses listed by decreasing the electives by 1 credit.
4 Chosen from 100-level PHYS courses, excluding PHYS 100. PHYS 109 or 119 are recommended. Students without Physics 12 must take PHYS 100 before taking other 100-level PHYS courses.
5 Electives must be taken to ensure the Faculty of Science Arts Requirement is met. Elective credits may be redistributed among the years in this specialization, provided the total number remains the same. The year level of an elective does not need to correspond to the year level of the specialization. Note that students in honours specializations must complete a minimum of 30 credits in each Winter Session. Students who do not have credit for Biology 11 or 12 must take 3 credits of 100-level BIOL (usually BIOL 111). Students with credit for Biology 11 or 12 must successfully complete 3 credits of an ASTR, BIOL, EOSC, or GEOB lecture course.
6 Students may elect to apply elective credits towards a Specific Focus Area in Chemistry
7 Students with CHEM 235 and a score of 76% or higher in CHEM 233 may apply for admission to this specialization and will be allowed to use CHEM 233 and 235 in place of CHEM 203.
8 BIOC 203 is a suitable substitute for this requirement. For students without credit for BIOL 200, selecting BIOL 201 requires either CHEM 313 or CHEM 330.
9 Chosen from 300- and 400-level CHEM lecture courses. At least 9 credits must be chosen from 400-level CHEM lecture courses.

Combined Major Specializations

Combined Major (3340): Chemical Biology (CHEM, BIOL)

First Year
Communication Requirement1 3
BIOL 1122 3
BIOL 1212 3
BIOL 1402 2
CHEM 121 (or 111) 4
CHEM 123 (or 113) 4
MATH 100 or 102 or 1043 3
MATH 101 or 103 or 1054 3
PHYS 1015 3
Electives6 2
Total Credits 30
Second Year
BIOL 200 3
BIOL 2017 3
BIOL 234 (or 233) 3
One of BIOL 203, 204, 205, 209, 210 4
CHEM 2038 4
CHEM 2059 3
CHEM 211 4
CHEM 213, 245 4
Electives6 2
Total Credits 30
Third Year
BIOL 230 or 260 3
BIOL 30010 3
Two of BIOL 337, 340, 341, 351, 35211 4
CHEM 208 3
CHEM 3001 3
CHEM 313 3
CHEM 315, 33512 2
One of CHEM 218, 305, 311, 327, 330 3
Electives6 6
Total Credits 30
Fourth Year
BIOL 336 3
CHEM 44513 3
CHEM and Life Science Electives14 12
Electives6 12
Total Credits 30
Total Credits for Degree 120
1 Of the 6 credits required to satisfy the Communication Requirement, 3 credits are specified in third year (CHEM 300). The remaining 3 credits must be chosen from the list of acceptable courses, see Communication Requirement. ENGL credits beyond those needed to satisfy the Communication Requirement may be applied towards the Faculty of Science Arts Requirement.
2 Students without Biology 11 or Biology 12 must take BIOL 111 before taking BIOL 112, 121 or 140.
3 MATH 180 or 184 or 120 may substitute for any of the specified differential calculus courses listed by decreasing the electives by 1 credit. MATH 110 may substitute for any of the specified differential calculus courses listed by decreasing the electives by 3 credits.
4 MATH 121 may substitute for any of the specified integral calculus courses listed by decreasing the electives by 1 credit.
5 PHYS 107 or 117 may substitute for PHYS 101. Students without Physics 12 must take PHYS 100 before taking other 100-level PHYS courses.
6 Electives must be taken to ensure the Faculty of Science Arts Requirement and Upper-level Requirement are met. Elective credits may be redistributed among the years in this specialization, provided the total number remains the same. The year level of an elective does not need to correspond to the year level of the specialization.
7 BIOC 202 or BIOC 203 are suitable substitutes for this requirement.
8 Students with CHEM 235 and a score of 76% or higher in CHEM 233 may apply for admission to this specialization and will be allowed to use CHEM 233 and 235 in place of CHEM 203.
9 CHEM 304 is a suitable substitute for this requirement.
10 STAT 200 may replace BIOL 300 with permission of a Biology specialization advisor. Students who replace BIOL 300 must complete an additional 3 credits of BIOL numbered higher than 300.
11 BIOL 341 is recommended. BIOL 326, 363, 404, 409, 437, and 444 may also be included in this list of courses. If the credit total of the courses selected for this requirement exceeds 4, the excess may be applied towards BIOL lecture electives (see footnote 14).
12 CHEM 325 and 345 may be substituted for CHEM 315 and 335 and 2 credits of CHEM 300-level lecture electives.
13 With permission, CHEM 449 or 6 credits of CHEM 445 may be substituted for 3 credits of CHEM 445 and 3 credits of 400-level CHEM lecture electives.
14 Chosen from 300- and 400-level BIOC, BIOL, CAPS, CHEM, MICB, or MRNE lecture courses, as well as EOSC 470, 474, 475, 478, GEOB 307, 407, FNH 350, 351, 451, MATH 462, MEDG 410, 419, 420, 421, and PCTH 305. At least 3 credits must be chosen from BIOL lecture courses and at least 3 credits must be chosen from 400-level CHEM lecture courses. Recommended electives include BIOC 302, 303, 402, 410, BIOL 335, 361, 435, 436, 463, CHEM 411, 413, 435 and MICB 325, 405.

Combined Honours Specializations

Combined Honours in Biochemistry and Chemistry, see Biochemistry.

Combined Honours in Chemical Physics, see Physics.

Combined Honours (3132): Chemical Biology (CHEM, BIOL)

First Year
Communication Requirement1 3
BIOL 1122 3
BIOL 1212 3
BIOL 1402 2
CHEM 121 (or 111) 4
CHEM 123 (or 113) 4
MATH 100 or 102 or 1043 3
MATH 101 or 103 or 1054 3
PHYS 1015 3
Electives6 5
Total Credits 33
Second Year
BIOL 200 3
BIOL 2017 3
BIOL 234 (or 233) 3
One of BIOL 203, 204, 205, 209, 210 4
CHEM 2038 4
CHEM 2059 3
CHEM 20810 3
CHEM 211 4
CHEM 213, 245 4
Electives6 2
Total Credits 33
Third Year
BIOL 230 or 260 3
BIOL 30011 3
BIOL 33612 3
Two of BIOL 337, 340, 341, 351, 35213 4
CHEM 3001 3
CHEM 313 3
CHEM 315, 33514 2
CHEM 319, 329 2
One of CHEM 218, 305, 311, 327, 330 3
Electives6 7
Total Credits 33
Fourth Year
BIOL 449 or CHEM 449 6
CHEM and Life Science Electives15 18
Electives6 9
Total Credits 33
Total Credits for Degree 132
1 Of the 6 credits required to satisfy the Communication Requirement, 3 credits are specified in third year (CHEM 300). The remaining 3 credits must be chosen from the list of acceptable courses, see Communication Requirement. ENGL credits beyond those needed to satisfy the Communication Requirement may be applied towards the Faculty of Science Arts Requirement.
2 Students without Biology 11 or Biology 12 must take BIOL 111 before taking BIOL 112, 121 or 140.
3 MATH 180 or 184 or 120 may substitute for any of the specified differential calculus courses listed by decreasing the electives by 1 credit. MATH 110 may substitute for any of the specified differential calculus courses listed by decreasing the electives by 3 credits.
4 MATH 121 may substitute for any of the specified integral calculus courses listed by decreasing the electives by 1 credit.
5 PHYS 107 or 117 may substitute for PHYS 101. Students without Physics 12 must take PHYS 100 before taking other 100-level PHYS courses.
6 Electives must be taken to ensure the Faculty of Science Arts Requirement and Upper-level Requirement are met. Elective credits may be redistributed among the years in this specialization, provided the total number remains the same. The year level of an elective does not need to correspond to the year level of the specialization. Note that students in honours specializations must complete a minimum of 30 credits in each Winter Session.
7 BIOC 202 or BIOC 203 are suitable substitutes for this requirement.
8 Students with CHEM 235 and a score of 76% or higher in CHEM 233 may apply for admission to this specialization and will be allowed to use CHEM 233 and 235 in place of CHEM 203.
9 CHEM 304 is a suitable substitute for this requirement.
10 May be deferred to third year to allow space for additional electives.
11 STAT 200 may replace BIOL 300 with permission of a Biology specialization advisor. Students who replace BIOL 300 must complete an additional 3 credits of BIOL numbered higher than 300.
12 May be deferred to fourth year to allow space for additional electives.
13 BIOL 341 is recommended. BIOL 326, 363, 404, 409, 437, and 444 may also be included in this list of courses. If the credit total of the courses selected for this requirement exceeds 4, the excess may be applied towards BIOL lecture electives (see footnote 15).
14 CHEM 325 and 345 may be substituted for CHEM 315 and 335 and 2 credits of CHEM 300-level lecture electives.
15 Chosen from 300- and 400-level BIOC, BIOL, CAPS, CHEM, MICB, or MRNE lecture courses, as well as EOSC 470, 474, 475, 478, GEOB 307, 407, FNH 350, 351, 451, MATH 462, MEDG 410, 419, 420, 421, and PCTH 305. At least 6 credits must be chosen from BIOL lecture courses and at least 6 credits must be chosen from 400-level CHEM lecture courses. Recommended electives include BIOC 302, 303, 402, 410, BIOL 335, 361, 435, 436, 463, CHEM 411, 413, 435 and MICB 325, 405.

Combined Honours (0206): Chemistry and Mathematics (CHEM, MATH)

First Year
Communication Requirement1 3
CHEM 121 (or 111) 4
CHEM 123 (or 113) 4
CPSC 110 4
MATH 1202 4
MATH 1213 4
PHYS 107, 108, 1094 7
Electives5 3
Total Credits 33
Second Year
CHEM 2036 4
CHEM 208 3
CHEM 211 4
CHEM 213, 245 4
CHEM 210 or MATH 2107 4
MATH 215 3
MATH 223 (or 221) 3
MATH 226 (or 200)8 3
MATH 227 (or 317) 3
Electives5 2
Total Credits 33
Third Year
CHEM 3001 3
CHEM 304 3
CHEM 312 3
CHEM 315 1
CHEM 319, 329 2
MATH 3059 3
MATH 316 3
MATH 318 3
MATH 320 3
MATH 321 3
Electives5 6
Total Credits 33
Fourth Year
CHEM 412 3
CHEM 44910 6
CHEM Electives11 3
9 credits from MATH 322, 323, 400-406, 412, 416-429, 433-440, 443, 449, 450 9
PHYS 301 3
Electives5 9
Total Credits 33
Total Credits for Degree 132
1 Of the 6 credits required to satisfy the Communication Requirement, 3 credits are specified in third year (CHEM 300). The remaining 3 credits must be chosen from the list of acceptable courses, see Communication Requirement. ENGL credits beyond those needed to satisfy the Communication Requirement may be applied towards the Faculty of Science Arts Requirement.
2 MATH 180 or 184 may substitute for MATH 120. MATH 100 or 102 or 104 may substitute for MATH 120 by increasing the electives by 1 credit. MATH 110 may substitute for MATH 120 by decreasing the electives by 2 credits.
3 MATH 101 or 103 or 105 may substitute for MATH 121 by increasing the electives by 1 credit.
4 PHYS 117, 118 and 119 may substitute for PHYS 107, 108, and 109. Students without Physics 12 must take PHYS 100 before taking other 100-level PHYS courses.
5 Electives must be taken to ensure the Faculty of Science Arts Requirement. Elective credits may be redistributed among the years in this specialization, provided the total number remains the same. The year level of an elective does not need to correspond to the year level of the specialization. Note that students in honours specializations must complete a minimum of 30 credits in each Winter Session. Students who do not have credit for Biology 11 or Biology 12 must take 3 credits of 100-level BIOL (usually BIOL 111). Students with credit for Biology 11 or 12 must successfully complete 3 credits of an ASTR, BIOL, EOSC, or GEOB lecture course.
6 Students with CHEM 235 and a score of 76% or higher in CHEM 233 may apply for admission to this specialization and will be allowed to use CHEM 233 and 235 in place of CHEM 203.
7 Students selecting MATH 210 must increase the number of electives by 1 credit. MATH 210 may not be offered every year.
8 Students who take MATH 200 or who obtain less than 68% in MATH 226 must take MATH 220 and obtain 80% or higher in order to take the required course MATH 320.
9 MATH 300, 301 may substitute for MATH 305 by decreasing the unspecified electives by 3 credits.
10 Students in this specialization will typically select projects in physical or theoretical chemistry.
11 Chosen from 400-level CHEM lecture courses. Recommended CHEM courses include CHEM 401, 402, 407, 408, 410, 417.

Combined Honours: Chemistry and Another Science Subject

First Year
Communication Requirement1 3
CHEM 121 (or 111) 3
CHEM 123 (or 113) 3
MATH 100 or 102 or 1042 3
MATH 101 or 103 or 1053 3
PHYS 100-level4 6
Electives5 9
Total Credits 32
Second Year
CHEM 2036 4
CHEM 208 3
CHEM 211 4
CHEM 213, 245 4
MATH 2007 3
Credits chosen in consultation with the other department8 12
Electives5 3
Total Credits 33
Third and Fourth Years
CHEM 3001 3
CHEM 319, 329 2
CHEM 4499 6
CHEM Electives10 21
Credits chosen in consultation with the other department8 24
Electives5 11
Total Credits 67
Total Credits for Degree 132
1 Of the 6 credits required to satisfy the Communication Requirement, 3 credits are specified in third year (CHEM 300). The remaining 3 credits must be chosen from the list of acceptable courses, see Communication Requirement. ENGL credits beyond those needed to satisfy the Communication Requirement may be applied towards the Faculty of Science Arts Requirement.
2 MATH 180 or 184 or 120 may substitute for any of the specified differential calculus courses listed by decreasing the electives by 1 credit. MATH 110 may substitute for any of the specified differential calculus courses listed by decreasing the electives by 3 credits.
3 MATH 121 may substitute for any of the specified integral calculus courses listed by decreasing the electives by 1 credit.
4 Chosen from 100-level PHYS courses, excluding PHYS 100. PHYS 109 or 119 are recommended. Students without Physics 12 must take PHYS 100 before taking other 100-level PHYS courses.
5 Electives must be taken to ensure the Faculty of Science Arts Requirement and Upper-level Requirement are met. Elective credits may be redistributed among the years in this specialization, provided the total number remains the same. The year level of an elective does not need to correspond to the year level of the specialization. Note that students in honours specializations must complete a minimum of 30 credits in each Winter Session. Students who do not have credit for Biology 11 or Biology 12 must take 3 credits of 100-level BIOL (usually BIOL 111). Students with credit for Biology 11 or 12 must successfully complete 3 credits of an ASTR, BIOL, EOSC, or GEOB lecture course.
6 Students with CHEM 235 and a score of 76% or higher in CHEM 233 may apply for admission to this specialization and will be allowed to use CHEM 233 and 235 in place of CHEM 203.
7 MATH 226 is a suitable substitute for this requirement. MATH 217 may substitute for MATH 200 by decreasing the electives by 1 credit.
8 These credits may be redistributed among the years in the specialization and must be chosen in consultation with the advisor from the other science department.
9 This may be substituted by an equivalent thesis course in the other department.
10 Chosen from 300- and 400-level CHEM lecture courses in consultation with a Chemistry advisor. At least 6 credits must be chosen from 400-level CHEM lecture courses.

Minor (1186): Chemistry (CHEM)

Chemistry minor course requirements vary depending on the first area of specialization of the student and must be decided upon in consultation with the Chemistry advisor. A maximum of six credits of overlap between the requirements of the two areas of specialization is allowed.

Students must take 18 upper-level CHEM credits including CHEM 315 but cannot count CHEM 448 towards the minimum requirement of 18 credits. Any additional credits taken to satisfy this requirement may be applied towards electives in the student's specialization.

Biochemistry major and honours specializations include 9 credits of 300-level CHEM lecture courses as well as senior chemistry laboratories. Thus the chemistry minor for these students consists of an additional 12 credits of 300- and 400-level CHEM lecture courses plus 6 credits of overlap.

Page last updated: April 23, 2015

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